Презентация на тему High and low prestige language variances

HIGH AND LOW PRESTIGE LANGUAGE VARIANCESK. SHAKIROVA PRESTIGE IN SOCIOLINGUISTICSlevel of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, DIGLOSSIAA situation in which two distinct varieties of a language are spoken within the same speech ‘H’ AND ‘L’‘H’ - written language VS ‘L’ - spoken language‘H’ in formal situations VS ‘L’ PRESTIGE AND STANDARDPrestige varieties - regarded mostly highly within a society. Standard language - the form PRESTIGE VARIETIESModern Standard ArabicMandarinStandard DutchReceived Pronunciation/General Australian English/Cultivated South African EnglishUS – no single prestige dialect THAT’S ALL!THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!

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HIGH AND LOW PRESTIGE LANGUAGE VARIANCES

K. SHAKIROVA


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dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.Prestige varieties are generally considered

PRESTIGE IN SOCIOLINGUISTICS

level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
Prestige varieties are generally considered to be the most correct or otherwise superior varieties. The prestige variety, in many cases, is the standard form of the language though there are exceptions.

"ON PURELY LINGUISTIC GROUNDS, ALL LANGUAGES—AND ALL DIALECTS—HAVE EQUAL MERIT"


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spoken within the same speech communityBilingual diglossia is a type of diglossia in which one

DIGLOSSIA

A situation in which two distinct varieties of a language are spoken within the same speech community
Bilingual diglossia is a type of diglossia in which one language variety is used for writing and another for speech
“People who are known to be bidialectal do actually control the two dialects, using one of them in special circumstances, such as when visiting a speaker with a similar 'home' background, and using the other for daily social and business affairs.“ (Chambers and Trudgill, Dialectology (1980))
The term diglossia (from the Greek for "speaking two languages") was first used in English by linguist Charles Ferguson in 1959.


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in formal situations VS ‘L’ in informal situations‘L’ may have phonemes absent from the ‘H’

‘H’ AND ‘L’

‘H’ - written language VS ‘L’ - spoken language
‘H’ in formal situations VS ‘L’ in informal situations
‘L’ may have phonemes absent from the ‘H’ and vice versa
‘L’ variants are not simplifications or "corruptions" of ‘H’
Usually there are no native speakers of ‘H’
‘H’: older state of the language (Latin/European languages); unrelated language; distinct but closely related dialect(Mandarin)
Each has certain spheres of social interaction where it is the only socially acceptable dialect
Differences may involve pronunciation, inflection, and/or syntax (sentence structure)


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Standard language - the form promoted by authorities and considered most correct. Standard is often

PRESTIGE AND STANDARD

Prestige varieties - regarded mostly highly within a society.
Standard language - the form promoted by authorities and considered most correct. Standard is often the prestige variety.
!ARABIC - Egyptian Arabic is widely used in mass media, while Literary Arabic is a more prestigious form.
Prestige varieties do not exhibit features which prove them superior. They are the language varieties of the prestigious social classes.
Relation between language and social status:
1958, J. Gumperz – speech patterns between 31 castes in Khalapur, India. Discovered phonological, lexical, vocabulary differences. Lower groups imitate patterns of higher groups.
1966, W. Labov – pronunciation of ‘r’ in 3 stores in New York City. High-class store workers pronounced ‘r’ most often, low-class didn’t pronounce ‘r’. Imitation again.


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– no single prestige dialect (General American)Modern Standard HindiModern Standard Urdu…

PRESTIGE VARIETIES

Modern Standard Arabic
Mandarin
Standard Dutch
Received Pronunciation/General Australian English/Cultivated South African English
US – no single prestige dialect (General American)
Modern Standard Hindi
Modern Standard Urdu


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THAT’S ALL!

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!


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