Презентация на тему Composition

COMPOSITION (compounding) is the combination of two or more existing words to create a new word. With very few exceptions, it is a noun, a verb or an adjective. In most compounds Properties of compoundsCompounds in English can be written differently: 	as single words – moneywise, 	with a Such criteria should be taken into account:solid spelling –nickname; underdog, whitewash;stress – `blue collar – `blue There are different classifications of compounds according to: 	their part of speech characteristic;the way components are According to the part of speech characteristic, compounds  are subdivided intonouns (night-gown, waterfall); verbs (to According to the way components are joined together, compounds are subdivided into neutral (formed by juxtaposition) According to their structure, compounds are subdivided into compounds proper (earthquake, to window-shop, sky-blue); compound-derived (affixed) According to the degree of semantic independence of components, c-s are divided into a) subordinative compounds Subordinative relations can becomparative – snow-white;instrumental – sunrise;of purpose – bookshelf;emphatic – dead-cheap;functional – bathrobe;sex – Coordinative compounds fall into 3 groups:reduplicative compounds – goody-goody, go-go;c-s formed with rhythmic stems – walkie-talkie; According to the order of components (ICs), compounds are subdivided into syntactic (with the direct order) According to the meaning of the whole, compounds are divided into idiomatic – night-cap (a drink Pseudo compounds are composed of meaningless root morphemes but put together present an idea: chit-chat –

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create a new word. It is one of the most common and important word-building processes

COMPOSITION (compounding)

is the combination of two or more existing words to create a new word.
It is one of the most common and important word-building processes in English.
A compound is a unit of vocabulary that consists of more than one lexical stem:
football, handicraft, sky-blue,
off-the-record, touch-me-not.


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adjective. In most compounds the rightmost morpheme (head) determines the category of the entire word:		greenhouse

With very few exceptions, it is a noun, a verb or an adjective.
In most compounds the rightmost morpheme (head) determines the category of the entire word:
greenhouse (noun);
spoon-feed (verb);
nationwide (adjective).


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– moneywise, 	with a hyphen – globe-trotter and 	as separate words – couch potato.Adjective-noun compounds

Properties of compounds

Compounds in English can be written differently:
as single words – moneywise,
with a hyphen – globe-trotter and
as separate words – couch potato.
Adjective-noun compounds are characterized by a more prominent stress on their first component:
a `tall `boy – a `tall-boy.
Tense and plural markers are attached to the compound as a whole (exceptions are passers-by, parks supervisor, sons-in-law, etc).


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`blue collar – `blue `collar; `green house – `green `house;connecting elements – handicraft, speedometer, spokesperson;impossibility

Such criteria should be taken into account:

solid spelling –nickname; underdog, whitewash;
stress – `blue collar – `blue `collar; `green house – `green `house;
connecting elements – handicraft, speedometer, spokesperson;
impossibility for members of a compound to be modified – a blackbird (дрозд); a very black bird (очень черная птица);
semantic unity (compounds always express a single idea) – baby-sit, home town, sweetheart.


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characteristic;the way components are joined together;their structure;the degree of semantic independence of components;the order of

There are different classifications of compounds according to:

their part of speech characteristic;
the way components are joined together;
their structure;
the degree of semantic independence of components;
the order of components (immediate constituents);
the meaning of the whole.


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(night-gown, waterfall); verbs (to honeymoon, to outgrow); adjectives (free-for-all, hard-working); adverbs (downstairs, lip-deep); prepositions (within,

According to the part of speech characteristic, compounds are subdivided into

nouns (night-gown, waterfall);
verbs (to honeymoon, to outgrow);
adjectives (free-for-all, hard-working);
adverbs (downstairs, lip-deep);
prepositions (within, into) and
numerals (thirty-seven).


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neutral (formed by juxtaposition) (sunflower, bestseller), morphological (joined by a linking element) (handicraft, microchip) and

According to the way components are joined together, compounds are subdivided into

neutral (formed by juxtaposition) (sunflower, bestseller),
morphological (joined by a linking element) (handicraft, microchip) and
syntactical (joined by means of form-word stems) (whodunit, face-to-face, lily-of-the-valley).


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window-shop, sky-blue); compound-derived (affixed) words (long-legged, video-player, absent-mindedness); compound words consisting of 3 or more

According to their structure, compounds are subdivided into

compounds proper (earthquake, to window-shop, sky-blue);
compound-derived (affixed) words (long-legged, video-player, absent-mindedness);
compound words consisting of 3 or more stems (mother-in-law, good-for-nothing, wastepaper-basket);
compound-shortened words (h-bag, V-day).


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into a) subordinative compounds (with 1 component as a semantic centre) – love-sick, nanny-goat, silverware;

According to the degree of semantic independence of components, c-s are divided into

a) subordinative compounds (with 1 component as a semantic centre) – love-sick, nanny-goat, silverware;
b) coordinative compounds (with both semantically equal components) – Anglo-Saxon, walkie-talkie, go-go.


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dead-cheap;functional – bathrobe;sex – tomcat;adverbial type – color-blind.

Subordinative relations can be
comparative – snow-white;
instrumental – sunrise;
of purpose – bookshelf;
emphatic – dead-cheap;
functional – bathrobe;
sex – tomcat;
adverbial type – color-blind.


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rhythmic stems – walkie-talkie; chit-chat;additive compounds – Afro-American, secretary-stenographer.

Coordinative compounds fall into 3 groups:
reduplicative compounds – goody-goody, go-go;
c-s formed with rhythmic stems – walkie-talkie; chit-chat;
additive compounds – Afro-American, secretary-stenographer.


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(with the direct order) (to frontpage, giver-away, fair-haired) and asyntactic (with the indirect order) (to

According to the order of components (ICs), compounds are subdivided into

syntactic (with the direct order) (to frontpage, giver-away, fair-haired) and
asyntactic (with the indirect order) (to book-hunt, blood-thirsty, theatre-goer).


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– night-cap (a drink taken before going to bed at night), butterfingers (a clumsy person)

According to the meaning of the whole, compounds are divided into

idiomatic – night-cap (a drink taken before going to bed at night), butterfingers (a clumsy person)
and
non-idiomatic – homeland, swimming-pool, speedometer).


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an idea: chit-chat – cплетни; helter-skelter – как попало; razzle-dazzle – кутерьма.Thus, composition is the

Pseudo compounds are composed of meaningless root morphemes but put together present an idea: chit-chat – cплетни; helter-skelter – как попало; razzle-dazzle – кутерьма.

Thus, composition is the way of word-building consisting in joining 2 or more stems to form one word: underfoot, war-ship, in so far.


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