Презентация на тему Functional styles

Functional styles, из раздела: Английский язык.  Презентацию в формате PowerPoint (pptx) можно скачать внизу страницы, поделившись ссылкой в социальных сетях! Презентации взяты из открытого доступа или загружены их авторами, администрация сайта не отвечает за достоверность информации в них. Все права принадлежат авторам материалов: Политика защиты авторских прав

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Functional stylesWhat is style?What is functional style?Classification of functional styles

Functional styles

What is style?
What is functional style?
Classification of functional styles


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Style (Latin 'stylus‘)

Style (Latin 'stylus‘)

"Style is a contextually restricted linguistic variation." (N.E. Enkvist)


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Style

Style

"Style is a product of individual choices and patterns of choices (emphasis added) among linguistic possibilities." (Seymour Chatman)


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Style

Style

"Style is a quality of language which communicates precisely emotions or thoughts, or a system of emotions or thoughts, peculiar to the author.“
(J. M. Murry)


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Styleis a set of characteristics by which we distinguish one author from

Style

is a set of characteristics by which we distinguish one author from another or members of one subclass from members of other sub­classes, all of which are members of the same general class (I.R. Galperin)


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Style is     way of using languageBy register (circumstances

Style is

way of using language
By register (circumstances attending the process of speech) :
formal –neutral – informal
By personal characteristics:
Individual style (of a writer)
By the context of communication:
Functional style


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Styleis identified by a COMBINATION of propertiesLexical meansSyntactical meansPhonological meansstyle

Style

is identified by a COMBINATION of properties

Lexical
means

Syntactical
means

Phonological
means

style


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Functional style a system of coordinated, interrelated and interconditioned language means intended

Functional style

a system of coordinated, interrelated and interconditioned language means intended to fulfill a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect. (I. R. Galperin)


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formal Neutralinformal



formal

Neutral

informal


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Informal Styleused in personal two-way every-day communicationvocabulary may be determined socially (educational

Informal Style

used in personal two-way every-day communication
vocabulary may be determined socially (educational and cultural background, age group, occupation) or regionally (dialect)


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Informal Stylegesture, tone, voice are as important as wordscarelessness in grammar and

Informal Style

gesture, tone, voice are as important as words
carelessness in grammar and pronunciation)
not much variety in vocabulary (some words are overused: thing, do, get, right, really)
repetitions, filling words (you know, kind of, well)


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Informal Styleimaginative word play (e.g. These clips are really …clippy)ready-made formulas of

Informal Style

imaginative word play (e.g. These clips are really …clippy)
ready-made formulas of politeness and tags (Could you…? Fine, isn’t it?)
standard expressions of surprise, gratitude (e.g. Thanks a million), apology (So sorry), etc.


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Informal Stylelexical expressions of modality (e.g. definitely, in a way, I should

Informal Style

lexical expressions of modality (e.g. definitely, in a way, I should think so, not at all, by no means)
ellipses (Hope you enjoy it)


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Informal Stylesubstantive adjectives (e.g. greens for ’green leaf vegetables’, woolies for ‘woolen

Informal Style

substantive adjectives (e.g. greens for ’green leaf vegetables’, woolies for ‘woolen clothes’)
lexical intensifiers, emphatic verbs and adverbs with lost denotational meaning (e.g. awfully, lovely, terrific, dead right)


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Informal Style VocabularyColloquial words    - literary colloquial (cultivated speech)

Informal Style Vocabulary

Colloquial words
- literary colloquial (cultivated speech)
- familiar colloquial
- low colloquial (illiterate speech)
Slang words
Dialect words


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Literary Colloquial  used by educated people in an informal conversation or

Literary Colloquial

used by educated people in an informal conversation or when writing letters to intimate friends bite, snack = meal
to have a crush on smb = to fall in love with smb
to turn up = come,


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Familiar Colloquialmore emotional, much more free and carelessused mostly by young and

Familiar Colloquial

more emotional, much more free and careless
used mostly by young and semi-educated
a great number of jocular or ironical expressions and nonce-words
e.g. doc – doctor, ta-ta – good-bye


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Low Colloquial Speechilliterate speechcontains more vulgar, harsh words (bloody, hell, f-word)sometimes contains elements of dialect

Low Colloquial Speech

illiterate speech
contains more vulgar, harsh words (bloody, hell, f-word)
sometimes contains elements of dialect


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Slangmainly used by young and uneducatedcharacterized by the use of expressive, mostly

Slang

mainly used by young and uneducated
characterized by the use of expressive, mostly ironical words which create fresh names for some usual things


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Slangmost slang words are metaphors and jocular, often with a coarse, mocking,

Slang

most slang words are metaphors and jocular, often with a coarse, mocking, cynical colouring
money – beans, bras, dibs, dough, wads
drunk – boozy, cock-eyed, soaked



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Slangslang words and idioms are short-lived, soon they ether disappear or lose

Slang

slang words and idioms are short-lived, soon they ether disappear or lose their peculiar colouring and become either colloquial or stylistically neutral:
chap, fun, mob, shabby, hitch-hiker, once in a blue moon


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Slanggeneral slang – for any social or professional group (cool)special slang –

Slang

general slang – for any social or professional group (cool)
special slang – peculiar for specific groups: teenager slang, football slang, computer slang: keel = kill (Internet-slang)


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Argotspecial vocabulary used by a particular social or age group, the so-called

Argot

special vocabulary used by a particular social or age group, the so-called underworld (the criminal circles)
its main purpose - to be unintelligible to the outsiders
e.g. shin – knife, book – life sentence


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Dialect WordsDialect is a variety of a language which prevails in a

Dialect Words

Dialect is a variety of a language which prevails in a district, with local peculiarities of vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar
Allus = always (Yorkshire)
Bonkkle = bottle (Birmingham)


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Dialect Wordsdialect words may enter colloquial speech, slang, then neutral vocabulary and

Dialect Words

dialect words may enter colloquial speech, slang, then neutral vocabulary and formal language
car, tram, trolley


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Formal Styleused in scientific discourse, in monologue, often prepared in advancewords are

Formal Style

used in scientific discourse, in monologue, often prepared in advance
words are used with precision
the vocabulary and syntax are elaborate and standard-oriented


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Formal Style VocabularyLiterary / learned words [lə:nid]    - words

Formal Style Vocabulary

Literary / learned words [lə:nid]
- words of scientific prose
- official words
- poetic diction
archaic and obsolete words
professional terminology


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Formal Style Vocabularyliterary / learned words – used in descriptive passages of

Formal Style Vocabulary

literary / learned words – used in descriptive passages of fiction
mostly polysyllabic words
create complex and solemn associations
delusion, reverberate, splenetic, insiduous


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Formal Style Vocabularywords of scientific prose  experimental, divergent, in terms of,

Formal Style Vocabulary

words of scientific prose
experimental, divergent, in terms of, heterogeneous,
officialese (канцеляризмы) –bureaucratic language, peculiar to official documents: accommodation (room), donation (gift), comestibles (food), dispatch (send off)


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Formal Style Vocabularywords of poetic diction:used in poetrycharacterized by a lofty, high-flown,

Formal Style Vocabulary

words of poetic diction:
used in poetry
characterized by a lofty, high-flown, sometimes archaic colouring
they are more abstract
e.g. array (clothes), steed (horse), lone (lonely), naught (nothing), thee (you)


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Formal Style VocabularyObsolete words are words that dropped from the language, no

Formal Style Vocabulary

Obsolete words are words that dropped from the language, no longer in use, for at least a century.


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Formal Style VocabularyArchaic words are words which survive in special contexts, current

Formal Style Vocabulary

Archaic words are words which survive in special contexts, current in an earlier time but rare in present usage.
associated with poetic diction
e.g. aye (yes), nay (no), morn (morning), betwixt (between)


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Historical wordswords denoting objects and phenomena which are things of the past

Historical words

words denoting objects and phenomena which are things of the past and no longer exist
they are names for social relations, institutions, objects of material culture of the past


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Historical wordsnames of ancient transport means, ancient clothes, weapons, musical instruments, etc.crinoline

Historical words

names of ancient transport means, ancient clothes, weapons, musical instruments, etc.
crinoline - кринолин
musket - мушкет
hansom двухколесный экипаж ( с местом для кучера сзади )



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Professional TerminologyTerm is a word or a word-group which is specifically employed

Professional Terminology

Term is a word or a word-group which is specifically employed by a particular branch of science, technology, trade or the arts to convey a concept peculiar to this particular activity


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Professional Terminologyterms should be monosemanticindependent of the contexthave only denotational meaningterms should

Professional Terminology

terms should be monosemantic
independent of the context
have only denotational meaning
terms should not have synonyms
cardiovascular (сердечно-сосудистый), futures (фьючерсы = фин.), modem


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Neutral Vocabularyopposed to formal and informal wordsused in all kinds of situations,

Neutral Vocabulary

opposed to formal and informal words
used in all kinds of situations, independent of the sphere of communication




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Neutral wordsconstitute the core of the language corpus, denote objects and phenomena

Neutral words

constitute the core of the language corpus, denote objects and phenomena of everyday importance
characterized by high frequency
e.g. to walk, summer, child, green


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Functional styles

Functional styles



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Classification of  functional styles official stylescientific style publicist style newspaper stylebelles-lettres style (стиль художественной литературы)

Classification of functional styles

official style
scientific style
publicist style
newspaper style
belles-lettres style (стиль художественной литературы)


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Official stylerepresented in all kinds of official documents and papers:а) the language

Official style

represented in all kinds of official documents and papers:
а) the language style of business documents;
b) the language style of diplomatic documents;
с) the language style of legal documents;
d) the language style of military documents


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Official style (“officialese”)The aim is to reach agreement between two contracting parties:

Official style (“officialese”)

The aim is to reach agreement between two contracting parties:
- the state and the citizen,
- or citizen and citizen;
- a society and its members;
- two or more enterprises or bodies;
- two or more governments (pacts, treaties);
- a person in authority and a subordinate, etc.
- a board of directors and employees


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Official style special clichés, terms and set expressions (beg to inform you,

Official style

special clichés, terms and set expressions (beg to inform you, I second the motion, provisional agenda, the above-mentioned, hereinafter named, hereby, on behalf of, private advisory, etc.)


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Diplomatic documentsSpecial terms and phrases: contracting parties, to ratify an agreement, memorandum,

Diplomatic documents

Special terms and phrases:
contracting parties, to ratify an agreement, memorandum, pact, persona non grata, principle of non-interference, extra-territorial status, exchange of ambassadors, Member State


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Legal languageextremely formal styleabundance of terms including Latin words (habeas corpus)often incomprehensible

Legal language

extremely formal style
abundance of terms including Latin words (habeas corpus)
often incomprehensible even to the native speakers


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The Boeing Company By-Laws (Устав)Article 1 Section 4: “Except as otherwise required

The Boeing Company By-Laws (Устав)

Article 1 Section 4: “Except as otherwise required by statute and as set forth below, notice of each annual or special meeting of stockholders shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such a meeting not less than thirty nor more than sixty days before the meeting date.”


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Official style use of abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions:Business: oc (over-the counter)

Official style

use of abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions:
Business: oc (over-the counter) без посредников
TC (till cancelled) пока не аннулировано, AAAA –American Association of Advertising Agencies (Американская Ассоциация Рекламных Агентств)
Military: adv. (advance); atk (attack); obj. (object); ATAS (Air Transport Auxiliary Service),


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Official style fixed compositional patterns Business lettersthe heading giving (the address of

Official style

fixed compositional patterns
Business letters
the heading giving (the address of the writer, the date, the name of the addressee and his address)
Introduction (Dear Sir(s) / Madam
Text
Conclusion (Sincerely / Faithfully yours)
Signature and work position


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Official style Almost every official document has its own compositional design. Pacts,

Official style

Almost every official document has its own compositional design. Pacts, statutes, contracts, affiliation contracts (трудовой договор / членства), orders (заказы) and minutes (протокол собрания) and memoranda (memos) — all have more or less definite forms.


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Scientific style found in scientific research papers, dissertations, articles, brochures, monographs and

Scientific style

found in scientific research papers, dissertations, articles, brochures, monographs and other academic publications
а) the language style of arts
b) the language style of sciences;
с) the language style of popular scientific prose


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Scientific stylethe aim is:to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to

Scientific style

the aim is:
to prove a hypothesis,
to create new concepts,
to disclose the internal laws of existence,
to establish relations between different phenomena, etc.


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Scientific styleobjective, precise, unemotional, devoid of any individuality generalized language (абстрактный язык)logical

Scientific style

objective, precise, unemotional, devoid of any individuality
generalized language (абстрактный язык)
logical sequence of utterances (connectives: as is clear from, therefore, thus, consequently, etc.)
use of terms specific to each given branch of science


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Scientific style referencing (fооt-nоtes, quotations) impersonality (passive constructions) very prolific in coining

Scientific style

referencing (fооt-nоtes, quotations)
impersonality (passive constructions)
very prolific in coining new words :
- drone (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)
- bionic eye (microchip implanted into the visual cortex of the brain – enables the blind to “see”)



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Medical text«Before the individual medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are discussed, the

Medical text

«Before the individual medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are discussed, the conventional approach to management needs to be elucidated».
Прежде чем перейти к рассмотрению конкретных диагностических и лечебных мероприятий следует разобрать общепринятый подход к лечению.


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Publicist styleessay, feature article, most writings of

Publicist style

essay, feature article, most writings of "new journalism", radio and television commentary, public speeches, etc.
а) the language style of oratory;
b) the language style of essay;
с) the language style of feature articles in newspapers and journals.


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Style of oratorythe oral subdivision of the publicist style purpose of oratory

Style of oratory

the oral subdivision of the publicist style
purpose of oratory is persuasion
requires a lot of eloquence
speeches on political and social occasions (party meetings, weddings, funerals, jubilees, in sermons and debates, in speeches of counsel and judges in courts of law)


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Style of oratorydirect address to the audience by special formulas (Ladies and

Style of oratory

direct address to the audience by special formulas (Ladies and Gentlemen)
final formulas to thank the audience (Thank you very much; Thank you for your time)
use of we, let’s (identifying with the audience)


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Style of oratory features of colloquial style (I’ll; won’t; haven’t; isn’t, etc)

Style of oratory

features of colloquial style (I’ll; won’t; haven’t; isn’t, etc) to reach closer contact;
the emotional colouring may be solemn, or ironic, but not “lowered” - jocular, rude, vulgar, or slangy;
stylistic devices to rouse the audience and keep it in suspense (repetition, climax, rhetorical questions, parallel constructions, etc.)


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Style of oratorySkills of public speaking: voice intonation and pausation ability to

Style of oratory

Skills of public speaking:
voice
intonation and pausation
ability to break the monotony

Listen to an example.


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Essayis a literary composition of moderate length on philosophical, social, scientific or

Essay

is a literary composition of moderate length on philosophical, social, scientific or literary subjects
preserves a clearly personal character
has no pretence to deep or strictly scientific treatment of the subject
a number of comments, without any definite conclusions


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Essaybrevity of expression;use of the first person singular (a personal approach to

Essay

brevity of expression;
use of the first person singular (a personal approach to the problems treated);
an expended use of connectives, which facilitates the process of grasping the correlation of ideas;
abundant use of emotive words;
use of similes and metaphors as one of the media for the cognitive process.


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Newspaper styleobserved in the majority of information materials printed in newspapers the

Newspaper style

observed in the majority of information materials printed in newspapers
the language style of brief news items
the language style of newspaper headlines;
the language style of advertisements


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Publicist stylegoal - to give ‘views’, i.e. to shape the audience’s

Publicist style
goal - to give ‘views’, i.e. to shape the audience’s opinion, to make the audience accept the speaker’s point of view

Newspaper style
goal – to give news, i.e. to inform the audience

PUBLICIST vs NEWSPAPER STYLE


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Newspaper styleInformative, unbiased and evaluative to a certain extent specific vocabulary to

Newspaper style

Informative, unbiased and evaluative to a certain extent
specific vocabulary to avoid direct responsibility:
The minister is reported to have denied the fact
The President was quoted as saying that there was no reason for panic.



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BRIEF NEWS ITEMS state facts without giving explicit comments mostly implicit evaluation

BRIEF NEWS ITEMS

state facts without giving explicit comments
mostly implicit evaluation
stylistically neutral, unemotional
matter-of-fact and stereotyped forms
neutral and common literary vocabulary


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BRIEF NEWS ITEMS characterized by an extensive use of:Special political and economic

BRIEF NEWS ITEMS

characterized by an extensive use of:
Special political and economic terms (cold war, recession)
Non-term political vocabulary (public, people, progressive, nation-wide)
Newspaper clichés (smear campaign, pillars of society); lots of them are pompous, hackneyed, false and misleading (political euphemisms)


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BRIEF NEWS ITEMS Abbreviations (NATO, EEC) Neologisms (liquid bomb plot) Complex syntactical

BRIEF NEWS ITEMS

Abbreviations (NATO, EEC)
Neologisms (liquid bomb plot)
Complex syntactical structure:
Brown addresses tonight’s TUC dinner, and is expected to face blunt words from Brendan Barber, general secretary, and Dave Prentis, TUC president and leader of Unison, on the failure to connect with the needs of ordinary people.


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BRIEF NEWS ITEMS Verbal constructions (infinitive, participial, gerundial) Attributive noun groups:A team-building

BRIEF NEWS ITEMS

Verbal constructions (infinitive, participial, gerundial)
Attributive noun groups:
A team-building exercise involving imitation guns backfired when it prompted a full-scale armed police response.


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THE HEADLINE to inform the reader briefly what the text that follows

THE HEADLINE

to inform the reader briefly what the text that follows is about
to arouse the reader's curiosity
to express the newspaper’s attitude to the information (elements of appraisal)


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THE HEADLINE can be almost a summary of the information “Homemade explosive

THE HEADLINE can be

almost a summary of the information
“Homemade explosive would be detonated with a camera flash”
short phrases: “Freddie, Fannie and Friends”
citing: “Give Scotland own digital channel, says inquiry”







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THE HEADLINE elliptical sentences (with auxiliary verbs, articles, subject, predicate omitted):“Man charged

THE HEADLINE

elliptical sentences (with auxiliary verbs, articles, subject, predicate omitted):
“Man charged with murder of boat couple”
“Russia to leave Georgia after EU deal”
“In praise of …open days”


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THE HEADLINE deliberate breaking-up of set expressions:“Cakes and Bitter Ale” (Cakes and

THE HEADLINE

deliberate breaking-up of set expressions:
“Cakes and Bitter Ale” (Cakes and Ale)
“Conspirator-in-chief Still at Large” (Constable-in-Chief)


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ADVERTISEMENTS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS Goal : to inform to appeal to the reader

ADVERTISEMENTS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS

Goal :
to inform
to appeal to the reader
to persuade the reader to respond accordingly





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ADVERTISEMENTS:  classified and non-classified Classifieds (“Jobs”, “Births”, “Obituaries”, etc)

ADVERTISEMENTS: classified and non-classified

Classifieds (“Jobs”, “Births”, “Obituaries”, etc)
-stereotyped patterns
- economizing space (= money):
- abbreviations
- neutral (with occasional emotionally coloured words to attract the reader's attention)


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Non-classified advertsThe reader's attention is attracted by every possible means:typographicalgraphical stylistic, both lexical and syntactical

Non-classified adverts

The reader's attention is attracted by every possible means:
typographical
graphical
stylistic, both lexical and syntactical


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Style of Advertisement

Style of Advertisement



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TO BElles-lettres or

TO BElles-lettres or NOT TO BElles-lettres ?

Fiction embraces numerous and versatile genres of imaginative writing, all sorts of style – formal and informal, uses the tools of all the functional styles. Is it reasonable to distinguish it as an independent style?
No consensus.


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Genres of Literature



Genres
of
Literature


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Genres of literature http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AsJko91QjgE More detailed description of genres http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNF4zpdDsSU


Genres of literature http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AsJko91QjgE
More detailed description of genres http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNF4zpdDsSU


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Belles-lettres styleа) the language style of poetry;b) the language style of emotive

Belles-lettres style

а) the language style of poetry;
b) the language style of emotive prose;
с) the language style of drama.


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Belles-lettres styleFunction: cognitive and aesthetic genuine, not trite; imagery, achieved by purely

Belles-lettres style

Function: cognitive and aesthetic
genuine, not trite; imagery, achieved by purely linguistic devices
richness of vocabulary and expressive means
a peculiar selection of vocabulary which reflects the author's personal evaluation of things or phenomena
The belles-lettres style is individual in essence