Презентация на тему Grammatical categories grammatical meaning. (Lektsia 2)

GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES  GRAMMATICAL MEANING is a system of expressing a generalised grammatical grammatical category is generally represented by at least two grammatical forms, otherwise it cannot existSingular - A grammatical category is a unit of grammar based on a morphological opposition of grammatical meanings Grammatical categories may be influenced by the lexical meaning The most general meanings rendered by language and expressed by systemic correlations of word-forms are interpreted is a system of expressing the grammatical meaning through the paradigm of grammatical forms expressed by For example, the class of nouns has the grammatical meaning of thingness.table its individual lexical meaning explicitly The book reads well Implicitlylexico-grammatical meanings of countability / non-countability of nouns Grammatical meaning is the sum total of all the formal means constantly employed to render this or that Synthetic Types. Inflexions (actor, studying)Sound-alternation (mouse – mice, meet - met ) Analytical Types (extra elements The paradigmatic correlations of grammatical forms in a category are exposed by the so-called The minimal (two-member) opposition is called binary. The correlated elements (members) of the opposition must possess two types of featurescommonserve as the basis PrivativeEquipollentGradualTypes of oppositions were established in phonology One member has a certain distinctive feature. This member is called marked, or strong (+). The both members of the opposition are markedopposition is formed by a contrastive pair or group in members of the opposition differ by the degree of certain propertystrong - stronger - strongestGradual oppositions morphological oppositions unlike those of phonological oppositions possess both the plane of expression and the plane one member of an opposition can be used in the position of the otherReduction of oppositions Oppositional reductionneutralizationthe use of the weak member instead of the strong;Next week we start for Moscow

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Слайды и текст этой презентации

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GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES GRAMMATICAL MEANING



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expressing a generalised grammatical meaning by means of paradigmatic correlation of grammatical formsThe grammatical category

is a system of expressing a generalised grammatical meaning by means of paradigmatic correlation of grammatical forms

The grammatical category


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it cannot existSingular - Plural

grammatical category is generally represented by at least two grammatical forms, otherwise it cannot exist
Singular - Plural



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opposition of grammatical meanings presented in grammatical forms

A grammatical category is a unit of grammar based on a morphological opposition of grammatical meanings presented in grammatical forms



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Grammatical categories may be influenced by the
lexical meaning



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of word-forms are interpreted in linguistics as grammatical meanings.

The most general meanings rendered by language and expressed by systemic correlations of word-forms are interpreted in linguistics as grammatical meanings.



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grammatical forms expressed by grammatical oppositionGrammatical meaning

is a system of expressing the grammatical meaning through the paradigm of grammatical forms expressed by grammatical opposition

Grammatical meaning


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its individual lexical meaning (it corresponds to a definite piece of furniture) and the grammatical


For example, the class of nouns has the grammatical meaning of thingness.
table
its individual lexical meaning (it corresponds to a definite piece of furniture) and the grammatical meaning of thingness (this is the meaning of the whole class).
Besides, the noun ‘table’ has the grammatical meaning of a subclass – countableness

Grammatical meaning is the meaning of the whole class or a subclass.


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nouns Grammatical meaning

explicitly
The book reads well
Implicitly
lexico-grammatical meanings of countability / non-countability of nouns

Grammatical meaning


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render this or that grammatical meaning(morphemes, synthetic forms, and grammatical word combinations)Grammatical form

is the sum total of all the formal means constantly employed to render this or that grammatical meaning
(morphemes, synthetic forms, and grammatical word combinations)

Grammatical form


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Analytical Types (extra elements which help to form language phenomena: have finished)Suppletive Formations. (Some special

Synthetic Types. Inflexions (actor, studying)
Sound-alternation (mouse – mice, meet - met )
Analytical Types (extra elements which help to form language phenomena: have finished)
Suppletive Formations. (Some special forms which substitute missing forms: good – better – best.)

Types of expressing the grammatical meaning


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the so-called

The paradigmatic correlations of grammatical forms in a category are exposed by the so-called
"grammatical oppositions"



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The minimal (two-member) opposition is called
binary.



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featurescommonserve as the basis of contrast			differentialexpress the function in question

The correlated elements (members) of the opposition must possess two types of features

common


serve as the basis of contrast

differential


express the function in question


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Privative
Equipollent
Gradual

Types of oppositions were established in phonology


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or strong (+). The other member is called unmarked, or weak (-)Speak – speaks+ Privative

One member has a certain distinctive feature. This member is called marked, or strong (+). The other member is called unmarked, or weak (-)
Speak – speaks+

Privative oppositions


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pair or group in which the members are distinguished by different positive featuresAm+ – is

both members of the opposition are marked
opposition is formed by a contrastive pair or group in which the members are distinguished by different positive features

Am+ – is +

Equipollent oppositions


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stronger - strongestGradual oppositions

members of the opposition differ by the degree of certain property

strong - stronger - strongest

Gradual oppositions


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expression and the plane of content

morphological oppositions unlike those of phonological oppositions possess both the plane of expression and the plane of content



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the otherReduction of oppositions

one member of an opposition can be used in the position of the other

Reduction of oppositions


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we start for Moscow transpositionthe use of a linguistic unit in an unusual environment or

Oppositional reduction

neutralization

the use of the weak member instead of the strong;
Next week we start for Moscow

transposition

the use of a linguistic unit in an unusual environment or in the function that is not characteristic of it
He is a lion


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