Презентация на тему Groundwater Resources: The Desert Southwest

Groundwater Resources:  The Desert Southwest What has happened to groundwater levels in the area investigated as time has progressed? What were What sources other than agriculture could be contributing to the decline in groundwater? How do these Groundwater DepletionRegions where groundwater is pumped faster than it can be recharged begin to see effects AgricultureUsing the maps below, which regions of the United States would be best for growing crops? Groundwater DepletionAgriculture is the main consumer of groundwater in the US. Most agricultural land is located Groundwater DepletionSome aquifers are overused because water is pumped out faster than it is recharged. The Hydrologic Cycle Water table: The “surface” of the material that is saturated with groundwater in a Ogallala Aquifer The Ogallala Aquifer supplies about one-third of the irrigation water in the United States. Groundwater DepletionWhere is the Ogallala Aquifer on these maps? Describe the trends around this aquifer. What factors can you attribute to the declining groundwater from north to south?  What factors What negative impacts might these groups be concerned about?The Keystone Pipeline currently sends 590,000 barrels of Solutions for Groundwater DepletionWhat are some ways to reduce groundwater depletion?Conserving water in urban areas. reducing Water Conservation Activity Predict the change in US agricultural groundwater withdrawal from 2005-2010.Irrigated land area increased, groundwater withdrawal increasedIrrigated Divide into pairs. Student “A” reads the original Ogallala Aquifer Initiative document. Student “B” reads the Analyzing DataUS groundwater withdrawals for irrigation = 49.5 billion gallons per dayGroundwater withdrawal from Ogallala Aquifer Again, predict the change in agricultural groundwater withdrawal from 2005-2010.Irrigated land area increased, groundwater withdrawal increasedIrrigated On the basis of your readings: What is responsible for the decrease in groundwater withdrawal, even What percentage of daily water withdrawn from the Ogallala Aquifer (16.96 billion gallons/day) would be needed Could water conservation efforts in the city of Amarillo have impacted the decrease in groundwater withdrawals

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Groundwater Resources: The Desert Southwest


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time has progressed? What were the reasons for any changes?

What has happened to groundwater levels in the area investigated as time has progressed? What were the reasons for any changes?


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in groundwater? How do these sources use groundwater?

What sources other than agriculture could be contributing to the decline in groundwater?
How do these sources use groundwater?


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recharged begin to see effects of groundwater depletion.Many sunny, arid regions are good for growing

Groundwater Depletion

Regions where groundwater is pumped faster than it can be recharged begin to see effects of groundwater depletion.
Many sunny, arid regions are good for growing crops as long as water can be added.
Groundwater can be used to increase farming productivity in regions that are technically too dry.


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be best for growing crops?

Agriculture

Using the maps below, which regions of the United States would be best for growing crops?


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Most agricultural land is located in regions that receive less than 20 inches of rainfall

Groundwater Depletion

Agriculture is the main consumer of groundwater in the US.
Most agricultural land is located in regions that receive less than 20 inches of rainfall per year.

Cumulative Groundwater Depletion, 1900-2008


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than it is recharged. The water table slowly subsides, requiring wells to be dug deeper,

Groundwater Depletion

Some aquifers are overused because water is pumped out faster than it is recharged.
The water table slowly subsides, requiring wells to be dug deeper, which takes more money and energy.
Subsidence: Sinking of the land surface because of the extraction of groundwater.
Rule of Capture: A law in some states stating that the first person to "capture" a resource (groundwater, oil, gas) owns that resource.



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saturated with groundwater in a given vicinity. How might the lowering of the water table

Hydrologic Cycle

Water table: The “surface” of the material that is saturated with groundwater in a given vicinity.

How might the lowering of the water table affect other parts of the hydro-cycle and ultimately affect local ecosystems?


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water in the United States. The Ogallala Aquifer is from 30 to 100 meters deep

Ogallala Aquifer

The Ogallala Aquifer supplies about one-third of the irrigation water in the United States.
The Ogallala Aquifer is from 30 to 100 meters deep over an area of about 440,000 square kilometers
The Ogallala filled slowly during the Ice Age tens of thousands of years ago.
Porosity: A measure of how much of a rock, sediment, or soil is open space.
Permeability: A measure of the ease with which a fluid (water in this case) can move through a porous material.



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trends around this aquifer.

Groundwater Depletion

Where is the Ogallala Aquifer on these maps? Describe the trends around this aquifer.


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to south? What factors can you attribute to the increase (recharge) of groundwater in

What factors can you attribute to the declining groundwater from north to south?

What factors can you attribute to the increase (recharge) of groundwater in blue in the north and south?


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currently sends 590,000 barrels of crude oil per day to refineries in the United States.In

What negative impacts might these groups be concerned about?

The Keystone Pipeline currently sends 590,000 barrels of crude oil per day to refineries in the United States.
In 2011, the Keystone XL pipeline extension was proposed to increase production by an additional 510,000 barrels per day.
Environmental groups, citizens, and politicians have raised concerns about the potential negative impacts of the Keystone XL project and have delayed its construction.


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water in urban areas. reducing lawn wateringDesalinating brackish water or seawater. Promote groundwater banking —

Solutions for Groundwater Depletion

What are some ways to reduce groundwater depletion?
Conserving water in urban areas.
reducing lawn watering
Desalinating brackish water or seawater.
Promote groundwater banking — Excess surface water (from floods, drainage, state and federal water projects) is pumped into an aquifer and then removed during droughts.
Understand the water footprint of the food we eat.

Given what you know about your water footprint and agriculture, is it reasonable to say that reducing your personal water use will help with water scarcity in the Ogallala Aquifer?


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Water Conservation Activity


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area increased, groundwater withdrawal increasedIrrigated land area increased, groundwater withdrawal decreasedIrrigated land area was constant,

Predict the change in US agricultural groundwater withdrawal from 2005-2010.
Irrigated land area increased, groundwater withdrawal increased
Irrigated land area increased, groundwater withdrawal decreased
Irrigated land area was constant, groundwater withdrawal decreased
Irrigated land area was increased, groundwater withdrawal remained constant
Irrigated land area decreased, groundwater withdrawal decreased


Remember your answer. We will discuss this again later.


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document. Student “B” reads the Ogallala Aquifer Initiative Progress Report. After reading, share the main

Divide into pairs.
Student “A” reads the original Ogallala Aquifer Initiative document.
Student “B” reads the Ogallala Aquifer Initiative Progress Report.

After reading, share the main points from each document with your neighbor.

Class “report out” activity.


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dayGroundwater withdrawal from Ogallala Aquifer = 19,000,000 acre feet/year (1 acre ft= 325,851 G)Predict the

Analyzing Data

US groundwater withdrawals for irrigation = 49.5 billion gallons per day
Groundwater withdrawal from Ogallala Aquifer = 19,000,000 acre feet/year (1 acre ft= 325,851 G)
Predict the daily groundwater withdrawal from the Ogallala Aquifer (in billions of gallons).
a) 55 b) 17 c) 5 d) 1.3 e) 0.07

52,055 acre feet per day or 16.96 billion gallons


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area increased, groundwater withdrawal increasedIrrigated land area increased, groundwater withdrawal decreasedIrrigated land area was constant,

Again, predict the change in agricultural groundwater withdrawal from 2005-2010.
Irrigated land area increased, groundwater withdrawal increased
Irrigated land area increased, groundwater withdrawal decreased
Irrigated land area was constant, groundwater withdrawal decreased
Irrigated land area was increased, groundwater withdrawal remained constant
Irrigated land area decreased, groundwater withdrawal decreased




Between 2005 and 2010, there was a 6 percent decline in US groundwater withdrawals for irrigation. However, there was a 1.5 percent increase in the US irrigated land area.


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decrease in groundwater withdrawal, even as irrigated land area increased?

On the basis of your readings:
What is responsible for the decrease in groundwater withdrawal, even as irrigated land area increased?





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billion gallons/day) would be needed to supply the city of Amarillo, Texas (population ~200,000), with

What percentage of daily water withdrawn from the Ogallala Aquifer (16.96 billion gallons/day) would be needed to supply the city of Amarillo, Texas (population ~200,000), with water? Amarillo uses approximately 80 million gallons of water on a summer day.

80/16,960,000 = 0.00000472%

MUCH less than 1 percent


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the decrease in groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer?Since Amarillo only uses 0.00000472 percent of

Could water conservation efforts in the city of Amarillo have impacted the decrease in groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer?




Since Amarillo only uses 0.00000472 percent of the water withdrawn from the aquifer, it is very unlikely that the city saving water would have a significant impact.


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