Презентация на тему Creation of terms

Term Creation 3. Creation of termsNew terms are commonly required in all sciences and technologies when new objects According to J. Sager, two types of term formation can be distinguished in relation to pragmatic There are general recommendationswhich should be observed when connecting concepts to terms (ISO 704:2000): linguistic appropriateness Methods of term formation1. creating new forms2. using existing forms, and3. translingual borrowing. 1. CREATING NEW FORMSNew forms are new lexical entities that did not exist before. Some of 1. CREATING NEW FORMS:Minor types: Sound imitation or Onomatopoeia;Ellipsis. Conclusions: NEW FORMS monosemantic easy to identify as terms precise, emotionally neutral lend themselves to further 2. Existing formsNew terms can be formed by using existing forms by the following procedures: conversion 3. Interlingual borrowing: Terms existing in one language can be introduced into another language by means Interlingual borrowing:  Why are words borrowed? historical circumstances; to fill a gap in vocabulary; to 3. Interlingual borrowing Assimilation of Loan WordsThe term Assimilation denotes a partial or total conformation to 3. Interlingual borrowing Classification of words based on their degree of assimilationCompletely assimilated wordsPartially assimilated wordsUnassimilated Other important concepts  international words/terms Factors influencing Term FormationThe subject field the terms belong to;Human factors;The origin of the term-formation system. Creation of new terms: Determined by the appearance of new phenomena, innovations and changes.There is no Secondary means of term formation: Extralinguistic changes Multilingual language transfer (translation, localisation) Linguistic policies Language planning Determinologizationopposed to the terminologization.The determinologization occurs when, by obtaining a non-terminological character, the terms can migrate

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Term Creation



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and technologies when new objects or parts of objects are created and new processes come

3. Creation of terms

New terms are commonly required in all sciences and technologies when new objects or parts of objects are created and new processes come into play.


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distinguished in relation to pragmatic circumstances of their creation:primary term formation and secondary term formation.


According to J. Sager, two types of term formation can be distinguished in relation to pragmatic circumstances of their creation:
primary term formation and
secondary term formation.


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terms (ISO 704:2000): linguistic appropriateness linguistic economy derivability

There are general recommendations

which should be observed when connecting concepts to terms (ISO 704:2000):
linguistic appropriateness
linguistic economy
derivability


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translingual borrowing.

Methods of term formation

1. creating new forms
2. using existing forms, and
3. translingual borrowing.


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not exist before. Some of the mechanisms which can be used are the following: affixation

1. CREATING NEW FORMS

New forms are new lexical entities that did not exist before.
Some of the mechanisms which can be used are the following:
affixation (prefixation, suffixation or both);
back-formation;
compounding / term-composition;
blending;
abbreviated forms (clipped or shortened, acronymy, initialisms, graphical abbreviations).


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1. CREATING NEW FORMS:

Minor types:
Sound imitation or Onomatopoeia;
Ellipsis.


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neutral lend themselves to further derivation

Conclusions: NEW FORMS

monosemantic
easy to identify as terms
precise, emotionally neutral
lend themselves to further derivation



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by the following procedures: conversion or zero derivation; terminologization; reterminologisation; semantic transfer through linguistic metaphor;

2. Existing forms

New terms can be formed by using existing forms by the following procedures:
conversion or zero derivation;
terminologization;
reterminologisation;
semantic transfer through linguistic metaphor;
semantic transfer through linguistic metonymy (eponyms);


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into another language by means of: direct borrowing; loan translation or calque.

3. Interlingual borrowing:

Terms existing in one language can be introduced into another language by means of:
direct borrowing;
loan translation or calque.


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a gap in vocabulary; to supply a new shade of meaning or a different emotional

Interlingual borrowing: Why are words borrowed?

historical circumstances;
to fill a gap in vocabulary;
to supply a new shade of meaning or a different emotional colouring.


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partial or total conformation to the phonetical, graphical and morphological standards of the receiving language

3. Interlingual borrowing Assimilation of Loan Words

The term Assimilation denotes a partial or total conformation to the phonetical, graphical and morphological standards of the receiving language and its semantic system.


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assimilationCompletely assimilated wordsPartially assimilated wordsUnassimilated Words

3. Interlingual borrowing Classification of words based on their degree of assimilation

Completely assimilated words
Partially assimilated words
Unassimilated Words


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Other important concepts

international words/terms


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origin of the term-formation system.

Factors influencing Term Formation

The subject field the terms belong to;
Human factors;
The origin of the term-formation system.


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innovations and changes.There is no linguistic precedent;A new concept in a new environment (monolingualism);A spontaneous

Creation of new terms:

Determined by the appearance of new phenomena, innovations and changes.
There is no linguistic precedent;
A new concept in a new environment (monolingualism);
A spontaneous and provisional phenomenon.


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localisation) Linguistic policies Language planning and standardiation. Terms may be attributed through: monosemy, polysemy, synonymy,

Secondary means of term formation:

Extralinguistic changes
Multilingual language transfer (translation, localisation)
Linguistic policies
Language planning and standardiation.
Terms may be attributed through: monosemy, polysemy, synonymy, equivalence, homonymy, etc.


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character, the terms can migrate from specialized languages to the general literary language.

Determinologization

opposed to the terminologization.
The determinologization occurs when, by obtaining a non-terminological character, the terms can migrate from specialized languages to the general literary language.


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