Презентация на тему Pre-Columbian America

*Богдевич А.И. 2012Pre-Columbian AmericaThe History of the USA. Lecture 1 *Богдевич А.И. 20121.The first Americans *Богдевич А.И. 2012Theories of the settlement of America Chronological approaches:The short chronology theory The long chronology *Богдевич А.И. 2012The short chronology theoryThe first movement beyond Alaska into the New World occurred no *Богдевич А.И. 2012The long chronology theory The first group of people entered the Western hemisphere at *Богдевич А.И. 2012Theories of the settlement of America Chronological approaches:The short chronology theory The long chronology *Богдевич А.И. 2012The land bridge theoryAlso known as the Bering Strait Theory or Beringia theoryHas been *Богдевич А.И. 2012BeringiaExisted at the height of the Ice Age, between 34,000 and 30,000 B.C.A land *Богдевич А.И. 2012Beringia *Богдевич А.И. 2012First peopleCame to Americas through BeringiaThey were isolated there from their ancestor populations in *Богдевич А.И. 2012Migration of the first people to Americas *Богдевич А.И. 2012Current understanding of human migration to and throughout the Americas derives from advances in *Богдевич А.И. 2012The two main possible routes for “Beringian” people:Down the Pacific coastBy way of an *Богдевич А.И. 2012The coastal (watercraft) theoryPeople reached the Americas via water travel, following coastlines from northeast *Богдевич А.И. 2012Watercraft subtheoriesPeople in boats followed the coastline from the Kurile Islands to Alaska down *Богдевич А.И. 2012Atlantic route hypothesis *Богдевич А.И. 2012Who were the first Americans?Common belief: descendants from northeast Asia (Siberia)New idea, based on *Богдевич А.И. 2012The hypothetical Altai homeland of the American population *Богдевич А.И. 20122.The Ancient Population of the North America *Богдевич А.И. 2012Evidence of early life in North AmericaLittle of it can be reliably dated before *Богдевич А.И. 2012	The Timeline of Early American HistoryPaleo-Indian Period (18,000 BC - 8000 BC)Archaic Period (8000 *Богдевич А.И. 2012Paleo-Indian Period Early Paleoamericans soon spread throughout the AmericasThey diversified into many hundreds of *Богдевич А.И. 2012Early changes in lifeThe mammoth began to die out and the bison took its *Богдевич А.И. 2012The spread of early civilizationAt about 8,000 B.C. native Americans in modern central Mexico *Богдевич А.И. 2012Archaic periodis characterized by subsistence economies supported through the exploitation of nuts, seeds, and *Богдевич А.И. 2012Early Woodland period (1000–1 BC)Pottery and ceramic making are introducedAppearance of permanent settlementsElaborate burial *Богдевич А.И. 2012Early population of the USA territoryThe first Native-American group to build mounds in what *Богдевич А.И. 2012An Adenan Mound *Богдевич А.И. 2012An Adenan village *Богдевич А.И. 2012Approximate area of Adenan cultures *Богдевич А.И. 2012HopewelliansExisted  from 200 BC to 500 ADMost important centers of their culture were found in southern OhioBelieved *Богдевич А.И. 2012The reasons for disappearing of HopewelliansThe increase of population caused decline of trade & *Богдевич А.И. 2012The late Woodland periodWas a time of apparent population dispersalConstruction of burial mounds decreased *Богдевич А.И. 2012The Mississippians or Temple Mound cultureThe construction of large, truncated earthwork pyramid moundsMaize-based agricultureWidespread trade networksThe *Богдевич А.И. 2012Cahokia /kə’hoʊkiə/Was located directly across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri The *Богдевич А.И. 2012The reconstruction of the ancient city of Cahokia *Богдевич А.И. 2012Life in Cahokia *Богдевич А.И. 2012Cahokian’s Woodhenge *Богдевич А.И. 2012The map of the ancient city of Cahokia *Богдевич А.И. 2012A Cacokian Mound (reconstruction) *Богдевич А.И. 20123.Early Native American Tribes: their way of life, culture, crafts, agriculture. *Богдевич А.И. 2012Native Americans’ enviromentsThe east side of the continent - woodlands, where they killed elk *Богдевич А.И. 2012Early farmingWere advanced and developed in Mississippi valley and SouthwestFarming, village life spread up *Богдевич А.И. 2012Early Native American Villages *Богдевич А.И. 2012Ancient pop-corn found in Peru Some indigenous American agricultural products are now produced & used globally Tomato; Potato; Avocado; Peanuts; Cacao* *Богдевич А.И. 2012Maize (corn): maize, squash and beans form the indigenous triumvirate crop system known as *Богдевич А.И. 2012Squash (pumpkins, zucchini, butternut squash, others) Pinto bean (Frijol pinto) ( Cultural characteristic No single cultural trait unifying for all of the peoples of the AmericasSeveral thousand MesoamericaMillennia of coexistence and shared development between the peoples of the regionHomogeneous culture with complex agricultural North American Great Plains areaUntil the nineteenth century several different peoples shared traits of nomadic hunter-gatherers Spiritual systemNo universal Native American religion or spiritual systemA number of stories and legends, creation mythsShamans—traditional Sandpainting *Богдевич А.И. 2012 Native American rituals*Богдевич А.И. 2012 Native American music in North AmericaAlmost entirely monophonicOften includes drumming but little other instrumentation, although flutes Native American fluteNative American flute (+drums)*Богдевич А.И. 2012

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Pre-Columbian America

The History of the USA. Lecture 1


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Богдевич А.И. 2012

1.

The first Americans


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chronology theory The long chronology theory

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Theories of the settlement of America

Chronological approaches:
The short chronology theory
The long chronology theory


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the New World occurred no earlier than 15,000 – 17,000 years agoIt was followed by

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

The short chronology theory

The first movement beyond Alaska into the New World occurred no earlier than 15,000 – 17,000 years ago
It was followed by successive waves of immigrants


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entered the Western hemisphere at a much earlier date, possibly 21,000–40,000 years agoMuch later there

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

The long chronology theory

The first group of people entered the Western hemisphere at a much earlier date, possibly 21,000–40,000 years ago
Much later there was a mass secondary wave of immigrants


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chronology theory The long chronology theory Route modelsLand bridge theoryCoastal, or “watercraft” theory

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Theories of the settlement of America

Chronological approaches:
The short chronology theory
The long chronology theory
Route models
Land bridge theory
Coastal, or “watercraft” theory


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Theory or Beringia theoryHas been widely accepted since the 1930sProposes that people migrated from Siberia

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

The land bridge theory

Also known as the Bering Strait Theory or Beringia theory
Has been widely accepted since the 1930s
Proposes that people migrated from Siberia into Alaska, tracking big game animal herds
Big game hunters crossed the Bering Strait at least 12,000 years ago and could have eventually reached the southern tip of South America by 11,000 years ago


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34,000 and 30,000 B.C.A land bridge up to 1,500 km wideA moist and treeless tundra,

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Beringia

Existed at the height of the Ice Age, between 34,000 and 30,000 B.C.
A land bridge up to 1,500 km wide
A moist and treeless tundra, covered with grasses and plant life, attracting the large animals


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Beringia


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from their ancestor populations in Asia for at least 5,000 yearsDuring the Late Glacial Maximum

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First people

Came to Americas through Beringia
They were isolated there from their ancestor populations in Asia for at least 5,000 years
During the Late Glacial Maximum as the American glaciers blocking the way southward melted, these people began expanding to populate the Americas


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Migration of the first people to Americas


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Americas derives from advances in 4 interrelated disciplines:ArcheologyPhysical anthropologyDNA analysis Linguistics. Explain, what all these

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Current understanding of human migration to and throughout the Americas derives from advances in 4 interrelated disciplines:

Archeology
Physical anthropology
DNA analysis
Linguistics.

Explain, what all these
branches of science
deal with


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Pacific coastBy way of an interior passage (Mackenzie Corridor) along the eastern flank of the

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

The two main possible routes for “Beringian” people:

Down the Pacific coast
By way of an interior passage (Mackenzie Corridor) along the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains


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travel, following coastlines from northeast Asia into the Americas It’s not exclusive of land-based migrations

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

The coastal (watercraft) theory

People reached the Americas via water travel, following coastlines from northeast Asia into the Americas
It’s not exclusive of land-based migrations
Helps to explain how early colonists reached areas extremely distant from the Bering Strait region (Monte Verde in southern Chile and Taima-Taima in western Venezuela)


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Kurile Islands to Alaska down the coasts of North and South America as far as

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Watercraft subtheories

People in boats followed the coastline from the Kurile Islands to Alaska down the coasts of North and South America as far as Chile
Atlantic route hypothesis:
based on evidence which traces the origins to the a culture of Ice Age Western Europe
Ice Age Europeans migrated to North America by using skills similar to those possessed by the modern Eskimo-Aleut peoples and followed the edge of the ice sheet that spanned the Atlantic
is not largely accepted in the scientific world


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Atlantic route hypothesis


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Asia (Siberia)New idea, based on new evidence: Southeast Asians (partly)Atlantic route hypothesis: Europeans (no DNA

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Who were the first Americans?

Common belief: descendants from northeast Asia (Siberia)
New idea, based on new evidence: Southeast Asians (partly)
Atlantic route hypothesis: Europeans (no DNA evidence)
Most modern research (January 2012): descendants from Altai (Russia)


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The hypothetical Altai homeland of the American population


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2.

The Ancient Population of the North America


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can be reliably dated before 12,000 B.C.A recent discovery of a hunting look-out in northern

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Evidence of early life in North America

Little of it can be reliably dated before 12,000 B.C.
A recent discovery of a hunting look-out in northern Alaska may date from that time
The finely crafted spear points and items found near Clovis, New Mexico, etc. (throughout North and South America)
SUMMARY: life was probably already well established in much of the Western Hemisphere by some time prior to 10,000 B.C.


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- 8000 BC)Archaic Period (8000 BC - 1000 BC)Early Woodland Period (1000 - 1 BC)Middle

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

The Timeline of Early American History

Paleo-Indian Period (18,000 BC - 8000 BC)
Archaic Period (8000 BC - 1000 BC)
Early Woodland Period (1000 - 1 BC)
Middle Woodland Period (1–500 CE)
Late Woodland Period (500–1000 CE)
Mississippian cultures (1000 – 1500 СЕ)


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diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribesTheir population was presented by small, highly mobile

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Paleo-Indian Period

Early Paleoamericans soon spread throughout the Americas
They diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes
Their population was presented by small, highly mobile bands consisting of approximately 20 to 50 members of an extended family
They moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought
Were efficient hunters and carried a variety of tools


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and the bison took its place as a principal source of food and hides More

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Early changes in life

The mammoth began to die out and the bison took its place as a principal source of food and hides
More and more species of large game vanished from overhunting or natural causes
Plants, berries, and seeds became an increasingly important part of the early American diet

Foraging and the first attempts at primitive agriculture appeared



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Americans in modern central Mexico cultivated corn, squash, and beansBy 3,000 B.C., a primitive type

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The spread of early civilization

At about 8,000 B.C. native Americans in modern central Mexico cultivated corn, squash, and beans
By 3,000 B.C., a primitive type of corn was being grown in the river valleys of New Mexico and Arizona
Then the first signs of irrigation began to appear
By 300 B.C., signs of early village life appear


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exploitation of nuts, seeds, and shellfishmulti-family dwellings in villages, which were used seasonally societies of

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Archaic period

is characterized by subsistence economies supported through the exploitation of nuts, seeds, and shellfish
multi-family dwellings in villages, which were used seasonally
societies of hunter-gatherers
Native American tribes traded with other tribes located in different regions


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introducedAppearance of permanent settlementsElaborate burial practicesIntensive collection growing of seed plants Differentiation in social organization,

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Early Woodland period (1000–1 BC)

Pottery and ceramic making are introduced
Appearance of permanent settlements
Elaborate burial practices
Intensive collection growing of seed plants
Differentiation in social organization, and specialized activities


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to build mounds in what is now the United States - the AdenansBegan constructing earthen

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Early population of the USA territory

The first Native-American group to build mounds in what is now the United States - the Adenans
Began constructing earthen burial sites and fortifications around 600 B.C.
Area: Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky, and parts of Pennsylvania and New York
Appear to have been absorbed or displaced by various groups collectively known as Hopewellians.


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An Adenan Mound


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An Adenan village


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Approximate area of Adenan cultures








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were found in southern OhioBelieved to be great tradersUsed and exchanged tools and materials across

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Hopewellians

Existed  from 200 BC to 500 AD
Most important centers of their culture were found in southern Ohio
Believed to be great traders
Used and exchanged tools and materials across a wide region of hundreds of kilometers
Were connected by a common network of trade routes - the Hopewell Exchange System


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caused decline of trade & its replacement by local warsThe efficiency of bows and arrows

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

The reasons for disappearing of Hopewellians

The increase of population caused decline of trade & its replacement by local wars
The efficiency of bows and arrows forced the tribes to break apart into smaller clans to better use local resources
A colder climate may have affected food yields
Agricultural technology became sophisticated enough that crop variation between clans lessened, thereby decreasing the need for trade.


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dispersalConstruction of burial mounds decreased drasticallyLong-distance trade in exotic materials were disappearing Settlements became more

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

The late Woodland period

Was a time of apparent population dispersal
Construction of burial mounds decreased drastically
Long-distance trade in exotic materials were disappearing
Settlements became more numerous, but the size of each one (with exceptions) was smaller than their middle Woodland counterparts


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truncated earthwork pyramid moundsMaize-based agricultureWidespread trade networksThe development of the chiefdom, of institutionalized social inequalityNo writing system or

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

The Mississippians or Temple Mound culture

The construction of large, truncated earthwork pyramid mounds
Maize-based agriculture
Widespread trade networks
The development of the chiefdom, of institutionalized social inequality
No writing system or stone architecture
Worked naturally occurring metal deposits, did not smelt iron or practice bronze metallurgy.


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modern St. Louis, Missouri The largest and most influential urban settlement in the Mississippian culture

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Cahokia /kə’hoʊkiə/

Was located directly across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri
The largest and most influential urban settlement in the Mississippian culture
Existed between  600–1400 AD
Its population in the 1200s was larger, than any European city of that time (London, paris)
Its ancient population would not be surpassed by any city in the United States until 1800


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The reconstruction of the ancient city of Cahokia


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Life in Cahokia


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Cahokian’s Woodhenge


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The map of the ancient city of Cahokia


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A Cacokian Mound (reconstruction)


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crafts, agriculture.

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3.

Early Native American Tribes: their way of life, culture, crafts, agriculture.


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woodlands, where they killed elk and deer The grass plains of the midwest, where they

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Native Americans’ enviroments

The east side of the continent - woodlands, where they killed elk and deer
The grass plains of the midwest, where they hunted to extinction the camel, mammoth and horse
The desert regions of the southwest – here human existence depended on smaller animals and gathered seeds
The Arctic north - there was very much more hunting than gathering, fish and seals were plentiful


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SouthwestFarming, village life spread up the east coastFields are cleared from the woodlands for the

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Early farming

Were advanced and developed in Mississippi valley and Southwest
Farming, village life spread up the east coast
Fields are cleared from the woodlands for the planting of maize
The rest of the continent - semi-nomadic existence. NO HORSE


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Early Native American Villages


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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Ancient pop-corn found in Peru


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Tomato; Potato; Avocado; Peanuts; Cacao* beans (used to make chocolate); Vanilla; Strawberry; Pineapple; Peppers (many

Some indigenous American agricultural products are now produced & used globally

Tomato;
Potato;
Avocado;
Peanuts;
Cacao* beans (used to make chocolate);
Vanilla;
Strawberry;
Pineapple;
Peppers (many species);

Sunflower seeds;
Rubber;
Chicle (also known as chewing gum);
Cotton;
Tobacco;
Coca (leaves chewed for energy and medicinal uses).

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Богдевич А.И. 2012


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triumvirate crop system known as the

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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Maize (corn): maize, squash and beans form the indigenous triumvirate crop system known as the "three sisters";


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Богдевич А.И. 2012

Squash (pumpkins, zucchini, butternut squash, others)


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with other

Pinto bean (Frijol pinto) ("painted/speckled" bean; nitrogen-fixer traditionally planted in conjunction with other "two sisters" to help condition soil)

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Богдевич А.И. 2012


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peoples of the AmericasSeveral thousand distinct cultural patterns have existed Cultural practices have been mostly

Cultural characteristic

No single cultural trait unifying for all of the peoples of the Americas
Several thousand distinct cultural patterns have existed
Cultural practices have been mostly shared within geographical zones where otherwise unrelated peoples might adopt similar technologies and social organizations.

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Богдевич А.И. 2012


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regionHomogeneous culture with complex agricultural and social patterns*Богдевич А.И. 2012

Mesoamerica

Millennia of coexistence and shared development between the peoples of the region
Homogeneous culture with complex agricultural and social patterns

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Богдевич А.И. 2012


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shared traits of nomadic hunter-gatherers primarily based on buffalo huntingWithin the Americas, dozens of larger

North American Great Plains area

Until the nineteenth century several different peoples shared traits of nomadic hunter-gatherers primarily based on buffalo hunting
Within the Americas, dozens of larger and hundreds of smaller culture areas can be identified.


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stories and legends, creation mythsShamans—traditional healers, ritualists, singers, mystics and both

Spiritual system

No universal Native American religion or spiritual system
A number of stories and legends, creation myths
Shamans—traditional healers, ritualists, singers, mystics and both "Medicine Men" and "Medicine Women".
Maintenance of a harmonious relationship with the spirit world
Ceremonial acts, usually incorporating sandpainting.

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Sandpainting

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Native American rituals

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little other instrumentation, although flutes are played by individualsThe tuning of these flutes is not

Native American music in North America

Almost entirely monophonic
Often includes drumming but little other instrumentation, although flutes are played by individuals
The tuning of these flutes is not precise and depends on the length of the wood used, but the finger holes are most often around a whole step apart and

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Native American fluteNative American flute (+drums)

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Богдевич А.И. 2012


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