Презентация на тему U.S. Military occupation 1945-1955

JAPAN’S ECONOMIC MIRACLE U.S. MILITARY OCCUPATION 1945-1955General Douglas MacArthur pushes new Constitution. Known as “Macarthur Constitution” Eliminates military influence Douglas MacArthur with Hirohito – who urged Japanese people to cooperate with occupation. WAR CRIMES TRIALS PUNISHED JAPANESE WARTIME MILITARY LEADERS Over 20,000 Japanese officers and soldiers accused of JAPAN’S ECONOMIC MIRACLEJAPAN’S ECCONOMIC GROWTH IS HIGHEST IN WORLD DURING 1950s and ’60s.BY 1970s, JAPAN HAS Zaibatsu Large “financial cliques” that were broken up after World War II. Famous examples: Mitsubishi, Mitsui, ELEMENTS OF JAPANESE MIRACLEPartnership between government and private corporations (some are zaibatsu)Slow down population growth; frees W. EDWARDS DEMINGBusiness management expertIdeas ignored in USCredited by Japanese for helping create economic miracleBasically, makes AUTOMATIONJapan became first major user of industrial robots in manufacturing.These were first developed in ConnecticutHonda’s first MINIATURIZATIONJapanese take new American technologylike transistors andcan manufacture morecheaply SLOWDOWNJAPAN’S ECONOMY SLOWS IN THE 1990s PROBLEMS OF INFLATION, HIGH OIL PRICES, “CRONY CAPITALISM.” THE “FOUR TIGERS”South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan follow Japan’s formula for successTheir economies also PLUSES OF PACIFIC RIM DEVELOPMENTSuccessful alternative to communismBetter way of life for huge part of earth’s CRITICISMSTOLERANCE FOR AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES – e.g. SingaporeCOMPETITION AND TRADE DEFICIT WITH US. LOSS OF AMERICAN INDUSTRIES

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JAPAN’S ECONOMIC MIRACLE



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“Macarthur Constitution” Eliminates military influence in governmentLand reform eliminates large landowners, makes Japanese farmers middle

U.S. MILITARY OCCUPATION 1945-1955

General Douglas MacArthur pushes new Constitution. Known as “Macarthur Constitution”
Eliminates military influence in government
Land reform eliminates large landowners, makes Japanese farmers middle class.
Emperor becomes largely ceremonial, no longer considered divine.
U.S. troops and bases stationed in Japan.


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with occupation.

Douglas MacArthur with Hirohito – who urged Japanese people to cooperate with occupation.




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officers and soldiers accused of war crimes against civilians.Over 900 executed in trials throughout Asia

WAR CRIMES TRIALS PUNISHED JAPANESE WARTIME MILITARY LEADERS

Over 20,000 Japanese officers and soldiers accused of war crimes against civilians.
Over 900 executed in trials throughout Asia after war.
US tribunal in Tokyo tried the highest leaders – Gen. Tojo (left), Admiral Yamashita
US didn’t seek publicity like Nuremberg Trials or put Hirohito on trial because they needed his cooperation



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and ’60s.BY 1970s, JAPAN HAS THIRD LARGEST ECONOMY IN THE WORLD.BECOMES THE MODEL FOR OTHER

JAPAN’S ECONOMIC MIRACLE

JAPAN’S ECCONOMIC GROWTH IS HIGHEST IN WORLD DURING 1950s and ’60s.
BY 1970s, JAPAN HAS THIRD LARGEST ECONOMY IN THE WORLD.
BECOMES THE MODEL FOR OTHER EAST ASIAN ECONOMIES, incl. CHINA
FULFILLS US GOAL OF A STRONG COUNTERWEIGHT TO COMMUNIST INFLUENCE IN EAST ASIA.


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II. Famous examples: Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Suzuki,

Zaibatsu

Large “financial cliques” that were broken up after World War II.
Famous examples: Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Suzuki,


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zaibatsu)Slow down population growth; frees up capital to invest.Economy is based initially on exports, and

ELEMENTS OF JAPANESE MIRACLE

Partnership between government and private corporations (some are zaibatsu)
Slow down population growth; frees up capital to invest.
Economy is based initially on exports, and eventually turns to consumer goods for domestic market
Government and companies agree to focus on certain areas of industry: electronics, automobiles and other vehicles, cameras, shipbuilding
Emphasis on quality through team approach; job security for those in good corporations


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helping create economic miracleBasically, makes everyone responsible for quality of a product

W. EDWARDS DEMING

Business management expert
Ideas ignored in US
Credited by Japanese for helping create economic miracle
Basically, makes everyone responsible for quality of a product



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first developed in ConnecticutHonda’s first robots (right)

AUTOMATION

Japan became first major user of industrial robots in manufacturing.
These were first developed in Connecticut
Honda’s first
robots (right)



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MINIATURIZATION

Japanese take new
American technology
like transistors and
can manufacture more
cheaply


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PRICES, “CRONY CAPITALISM.”

SLOWDOWN

JAPAN’S ECONOMY SLOWS IN THE 1990s
PROBLEMS OF INFLATION, HIGH OIL PRICES, “CRONY CAPITALISM.”



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formula for successTheir economies also grow rapidly. Today Malaysia and Thailand are following similar routes

THE “FOUR TIGERS”

South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan follow Japan’s formula for success
Their economies also grow rapidly.
Today Malaysia and Thailand are following similar routes to development.
Vietnam is following China’s mix of capitalism and communism
Indonesia is a mix of Tiger-style development along with selling off its natural resources, esp. forests


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for huge part of earth’s populationMore trading partners for the US and Western world

PLUSES OF PACIFIC RIM DEVELOPMENT

Successful alternative to communism
Better way of life for huge part of earth’s population
More trading partners for the US and Western world


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US. LOSS OF AMERICAN INDUSTRIES “CRONY CAPITALISM” – CorruptionGlobal economic collapse and bailout - 1998

CRITICISMS

TOLERANCE FOR AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES – e.g. Singapore
COMPETITION AND TRADE DEFICIT WITH US.
LOSS OF AMERICAN INDUSTRIES
“CRONY CAPITALISM” – Corruption
Global economic collapse and bailout - 1998


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