Презентация на тему English intonation

ENGLISH INTONATIONThe definition of intonation The anatomy of English intonationThe functions of intonationThe functional value INTONATIONIntonation is a specific organization of speech-sounds grouped in syllables and words and intended to DEFINITIONto superimpose [⎮su:prIm⎮pqVz]inherit [In⎮herIt]prosody[⎮prPsqdi]: pitch, loudness, tempotimbre [⎮txmbrq]non-entityutterance INTONATION  on the perception levelIntonation is a complex unity of changes in voice pitch PROSODY – synonym of INTONATION“prosody” and “intonation” include the same components but intonation is a TIMBREPr. Vassiliev includes it as the fourth component of intonation. By voice timbre we mean Sentence (Utterance)Sentence real =  Sentence potential + IntonationIntonation group (an actualized syntagm) – a A potential and an actualized syntagm“I think Pitch-and-stress structure of the intonation pattern (or pitch-sentence stress pattern)Nucleus (focal point)TailHeadPre-head The Terminal ToneThe Pitch-and-stress structure of the intonation pattern (or pitch-sentence stress pattern)1234He is a very remarkable novelist. Types of terminal tonesSimple tunes Low Fall 		 Low RiseHigh Fall 		 High RiseMid Fall Types of pre-headsZero pre-headLow pre-head   High pre-headHello!Good morning! Types of headsDescendingStepping Falling Scandent Sliding				Ascending				Rising  				Climbing 							Level							High 							Medium 							Low   Level HeadsLowHighMediumAll right!Who ever saw …What’s your favourite colour? Descending headsFallingSteppingSlidingScandentWhat did you think of Mary’s flat?Alice was beginning to get very tired.I’ll get Ascending headsRisingClimbingDid you tell Vincent about it?Thank you very much!“That is too bad,” said the Combinations High Head +Low FallHigh FallLow RiseHigh RiseFall-RiseNot at all!calm, reservedsurprised, concernedencouraging, very friendlyquestioningprotesting, correcting FUNCTIONS OF INTONATIONto structure the information content of a textual unit;to differentiate the actual meaning The functional value of the pitchSyntactically distinctive function:She washed and dressed her \baby. (1)She washed Statements: * I like music.Questions: * Can you prove it?Imperative sentences or commands: * Try Semantically distinctive function:I don’t give my books to anybody.\anybody (= to nobody)\any⁄ body (= to Attitudinally distinctive function:→Will you be \ quiet. (order)→Will you be ⁄ quiet.  (request)The pitch Sentence-stressSentence-stress is a special prominence given to one or more words according to their relative 3 types of sentence stressnormal (syntactic) stresslogical stressemphatic stressRhythmic stress is a subtitle of normal Normal (syntactic) sentence-stress:→Very \good. →Not very \good. If \Mary ⁄comes |→ let me \know. →If Logical sentence-stressCompare:a) I knew what he was going to \say. b) I \knew what he Emphatic sentence-stress    implies the increase of the effort of expression.I want an Various distinctive functionslogically distinctive functionsyntactically distinctive function: Have you met my ⁄ brother | ⁄ Various distinctive functionssemantically distinctive function:You for get your self. You for get yourself. A: What do you think of the film?B: It’s quite interesting. TEMPOThe term “tempo” implies the rate of the utterance and pausation. The rate of speech PAUSEBy “pause” we mean a complete stop of phonation.PAUSES		Short 			 Syntactic		Normal 			 Emphatic		Long 			Hesitation A syntactic pause       delimitates the text syntactically.An emphatic pause HESITATIONPauses: silent and filled. No stop of phonation but we feel a pause:On Saturday I’ll go to Moscow.Anyway, I RHYTHMA.M. Antipova defines rhythm as a complex language system which is formed by the interrelation LANGUAGES 	syllable-timed 		 stress-timed     (French, Spanish) 	(English,German, Russian)‘ One, ‘ Proclitics - the adjoining unstressed words when they precede the stressed words. Piccadilly – Piccadilly Circus – close to Piccadilly;princess – a princess royal
INTONATIONIntonation is a specific organization of speech-sounds grouped in syllables and words and intended to produce meaningful utterances.

Слайды и текст этой презентации

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ENGLISH INTONATIONThe definition of intonation The anatomy of English intonationThe functions of intonationThe functional value

ENGLISH INTONATION

The definition of intonation
The anatomy of English intonation
The functions of intonation
The functional value of the pitch.
Sentence stress.
The tempo of speech.
Pauses.
Rhythm.


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INTONATIONIntonation is a specific organization of speech-sounds grouped in syllables and words and intended to

INTONATION

Intonation is a specific organization of speech-sounds grouped in syllables and words and intended to produce meaningful utterances.


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DEFINITIONto superimpose [⎮su:prIm⎮pqVz]inherit [In⎮herIt]prosody[⎮prPsqdi]: pitch, loudness, tempotimbre [⎮txmbrq]non-entityutterance

DEFINITION

to superimpose [⎮su:prIm⎮pqVz]
inherit [In⎮herIt]
prosody[⎮prPsqdi]: pitch, loudness, tempo
timbre [⎮txmbrq]
non-entity
utterance


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INTONATION on the perception levelIntonation is a complex unity of changes in voice pitch or

INTONATION on the perception level

Intonation is a complex unity of changes in voice pitch or tone, intensity or accent, and tempo, i.e. the rate of utterance and pausation.


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PROSODY – synonym of INTONATION“prosody” and “intonation” include the same components but intonation is a

PROSODY – synonym of INTONATION

“prosody” and “intonation” include the same components but intonation is a broader notion, that’s why the term “prosody” seems to be more adequate.


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TIMBREPr. Vassiliev includes it as the fourth component of intonation. By voice timbre we mean

TIMBRE

Pr. Vassiliev includes it as the fourth component of intonation.

By voice timbre we mean the colouring of voice.


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Sentence (Utterance)Sentence real = Sentence potential + IntonationIntonation group (an actualized syntagm) – a group

Sentence (Utterance)


Sentence real = Sentence potential + Intonation

Intonation group (an actualized syntagm) – a group of words which is semantically and syntactically complete.

Intonation patterns is the basic unit of intonation which is formed by pitch, loudness and tempo.


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A potential and an actualized syntagm“I think      he is coming

A potential and an actualized syntagm


“I think he is coming soon”
a potential syntagm a potential syntagm


“I think he is coming soon”
an actualized syntagm


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Pitch-and-stress structure of the intonation pattern (or pitch-sentence stress pattern)Nucleus (focal point)TailHeadPre-head The Terminal ToneThe

Pitch-and-stress structure of the intonation pattern (or pitch-sentence stress pattern)


Nucleus (focal point)
Tail


Head
Pre-head


The Terminal Tone


The Pre-nuclear Part


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Pitch-and-stress structure of the intonation pattern (or pitch-sentence stress pattern)1234He is a very remarkable novelist.

Pitch-and-stress structure of the intonation pattern (or pitch-sentence stress pattern)















1

2

3

4

He is a very remarkable novelist.


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Types of terminal tonesSimple tunes Low Fall 		 Low RiseHigh Fall 		 High RiseMid Fall

Types of terminal tones

Simple tunes
Low Fall Low Rise
High Fall High Rise
Mid Fall Mid Rise
Mid Level
Complex tunes
Fall-Rise
Rise-Fall
Rise-Fall-Rise
Compound tunes
Rise + Fall
Fall + Rise


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Types of pre-headsZero pre-headLow pre-head  High pre-headHello!Good morning!

Types of pre-heads

Zero pre-head

Low pre-head

High pre-head





Hello!



Good morning!


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Types of headsDescendingStepping Falling Scandent Sliding				Ascending				Rising  				Climbing 							Level							High 							Medium 							Low  

Types of heads

Descending
Stepping
Falling
Scandent
Sliding
Ascending
Rising  
Climbing
Level
High
Medium
Low




 


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Level HeadsLowHighMediumAll right!Who ever saw …What’s your favourite colour?

Level Heads

Low

High

Medium



All right!




Who ever saw …






What’s your favourite colour?


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Descending headsFallingSteppingSlidingScandentWhat did you think of Mary’s flat?Alice was beginning to get very tired.I’ll get

Descending heads

Falling

Stepping

Sliding

Scandent






What did you think of Mary’s flat?













Alice was beginning to get very tired.








I’ll get it rewired at once.








… and her brother and sister were asleep.


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Ascending headsRisingClimbingDid you tell Vincent about it?Thank you very much!“That is too bad,” said the

Ascending heads

Rising



Climbing






Did you tell Vincent about it?




Thank you very much!










“That is too bad,” said the professor.


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Combinations High Head +Low FallHigh FallLow RiseHigh RiseFall-RiseNot at all!calm, reservedsurprised, concernedencouraging, very friendlyquestioningprotesting, correcting

Combinations

High Head +
Low Fall

High Fall

Low Rise

High Rise

Fall-Rise











Not at all!

calm, reserved

surprised, concerned

encouraging, very friendly

questioning

protesting, correcting


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FUNCTIONS OF INTONATIONto structure the information content of a textual unit;to differentiate the actual meaning

FUNCTIONS OF INTONATION

to structure the information content of a textual unit;
to differentiate the actual meaning of textual units;
to structure a text, to define the number of terminal tones;
to determine the speech function of a phrase;
to convey connotational meaning of “attitude”;
stylistic function of intonation.


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The functional value of the pitchSyntactically distinctive function:She washed and dressed her \baby. (1)She washed

The functional value of the pitch

Syntactically distinctive function:
She washed and dressed her \baby. (1)
She washed and dressed her \baby. (2)

--- The meaning is different.



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Statements: * I like music.Questions: * Can you prove it?Imperative sentences or commands: * Try

Statements: * I like music.
Questions: * Can you prove it?
Imperative sentences or commands: * Try it again.
Exclamations: * Right you are!

a) Isn’t it wonderful! (a general question)
b) Isn’t it wonderful! (an exclamation)

The communicative types of sentences:


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Semantically distinctive function:I don’t give my books to anybody.\anybody (= to nobody)\any⁄ body (= to

Semantically distinctive function:

I don’t give my books to anybody.

\anybody (= to nobody)
\any⁄ body (= to those whom I don’t know)


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Attitudinally distinctive function:→Will you be \ quiet. (order)→Will you be ⁄ quiet. (request)The pitch differentiates

Attitudinally distinctive function:
→Will you be \ quiet. (order)
→Will you be ⁄ quiet. (request)
The pitch differentiates the connotational meaning.
----------------
Why? (no interest, detached)
Why? (interest, sympathy)
Why? (much concern)
Why? (concerned, hurt)
The pitch differentiates the attitudinal meaning.


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Sentence-stressSentence-stress is a special prominence given to one or more words according to their relative

Sentence-stress

Sentence-stress is a special prominence given to one or more words according to their relative importance in a sentence.


I can’t | tell you | anything about it.
I’d like them | to come | to my party.
(3 rhythmic groups)


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3 types of sentence stressnormal (syntactic) stresslogical stressemphatic stressRhythmic stress is a subtitle of normal

3 types of sentence stress

normal (syntactic) stress
logical stress
emphatic stress

Rhythmic stress is a subtitle of normal stress.
Rhythm is alternations of stressed and unstressed syllables.



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Normal (syntactic) sentence-stress:→Very \good. →Not very \good. If \Mary ⁄comes |→ let me \know. →If

Normal (syntactic) sentence-stress:

→Very \good.
→Not very \good.

If \Mary ⁄comes |→ let me \know.
→If she ⁄comes |→ let me \know.


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Logical sentence-stressCompare:a) I knew what he was going to \say. b) I \knew what he

Logical sentence-stress
Compare:
a) I knew what he was going to \say.
b) I \knew what he was ֽgoing to ֽsay.

I want an English book.
I want an English book.

You know what I’d like, I’d like a new car.


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Emphatic sentence-stress  implies the increase of the effort of expression.I want an English book.


Emphatic sentence-stress implies
the increase of the effort of expression.

I want an English book. (unemphatic, NS)
I want an English book. (emphatic, NS)
I want an English book. (unemphatic, LS)
I want an English book. (emphatic, LS)


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Various distinctive functionslogically distinctive functionsyntactically distinctive function: Have you met my ⁄ brother | ⁄

Various distinctive functions


logically distinctive function

syntactically distinctive function:
Have you met my ⁄ brother | ⁄ Tom? (apposition)
Have you met my ⁄ brother Tom? (direct address)


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Various distinctive functionssemantically distinctive function:You for get your self. You for get yourself.  What

Various distinctive functions

semantically distinctive function:
You for get your self.
You for get yourself.
What are you working for? (purpose)
What are you working for? (reason)
attitudinally distinctive function:
→What shall I \do?
→What \shall I do?

She said the bus was late. (You believe this)
She said the bus was late. (You don’t believe her)


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A: What do you think of the film?B: It’s quite interesting.    (=

A: What do you think of the film?
B: It’s quite interesting.
(= yes, it’s definitely interesting)

A: What do you think of the film?
B: It’s quite interesting.
(= but not very interesting)


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TEMPOThe term “tempo” implies the rate of the utterance and pausation. The rate of speech

TEMPO

The term “tempo” implies
the rate of the utterance and pausation.
The rate of speech can be fast (or rapid),
normal (or mid),
slow.
“My mother thinks him to be a common labouring boy”, said Betty with a smile.

“I’m not ready,” he said slowly.


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PAUSEBy “pause” we mean a complete stop of phonation.PAUSES		Short 			 Syntactic		Normal 			 Emphatic		Long 			Hesitation

PAUSE

By “pause” we mean
a complete stop of phonation.

PAUSES

Short Syntactic
Normal Emphatic
Long Hesitation


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A syntactic pause    delimitates the text syntactically.An emphatic pause

A syntactic pause
delimitates the text syntactically.

An emphatic pause
emphasizes the following part of the utterance.
She is the most _ charming girl in the group.

A hesitation pause (in spontaneous speech) serves to gain time to think over what to say next.


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HESITATIONPauses: silent and filled.         withspeech sounds: um,

HESITATION

Pauses: silent and filled.
with
speech sounds: um, er.
prolonged vowels: theee, tooo, ayyy.

special phrases: you see,
frankly speaking,
let me think for a moment,
just, now, I think, …



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No stop of phonation but we feel a pause:On Saturday I’ll go to Moscow.Anyway, I

No stop of phonation but we feel a pause:

On Saturday I’ll go to Moscow.

Anyway, I must be off …





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RHYTHMA.M. Antipova defines rhythm as a complex language system which is formed by the interrelation

RHYTHM

A.M. Antipova defines rhythm
as a complex language system which is formed by the interrelation of lexical, syntactic and prosodic means.

Prosody creates similarity and isochrony of speech elements.


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LANGUAGES 	syllable-timed 		 stress-timed   (French, Spanish) 	(English,German, Russian)‘ One, ‘ Two, ‘

LANGUAGES


syllable-timed stress-timed
(French, Spanish) (English,German, Russian)

‘ One, ‘ Two, ‘ Three, \Four.
‘ One and ‘ Two and ‘ Three and \Four.


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Proclitics - the adjoining unstressed words when they precede the stressed words.

Proclitics - the adjoining unstressed words
when they precede the stressed words.
(on the wall)
Enclitics - the adjoining unstressed words
when they follow the stressed words.
(come with me)












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Piccadilly – Piccadilly Circus – close to Piccadilly;princess – a princess royal

Piccadilly –
Piccadilly Circus –
close to Piccadilly;

princess –
a princess royal


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