Презентация на тему Language and lexicology. (Lecture 1)

LECTURE 1 LANGUAGE AND LEXICOLOGY  www.philology.bsu.by/кафедры/кафедра английского языкознания/учебные материалы/кафедра английского языкознания/папки преподавателей/Толстоухова В.Ф.Толстоухова Валентина Федоровнадоцент Syllabus Lectures    20 hoursWorkshops  8 hoursSupervised self-guided work (УСР) 6 hoursTOTAL		34 RESOURSES Антрушина Г.Б. Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов / Г.Б. Антрушина, О.В. Афанасьева, Н.Н. LECTURE 1 The questions under consideration1.What is lexicology?1.1.The definition of lexicology1.2.The object of lexicology1.3.The theoretical and TEST 1Name the type of lexicology which deals withthe origin of various words, their change and 2. Answer the following questions1.What is the subject-matter of lexicology as a branch of linguistics?2. What 6.What are the points of interactions between lexicology and phonetics?7. Morphological indicators can help to differentiate 1.1. The definition of lexicology 1.2. The object of lexicologyWhat is it - Modern English Lexicology?It The definition of lexicologyLexicology is the part of linguistics dealing with the vocabulary of the language The term lexicology lexicology lexis ‘word’ logos ‘learning’. The object of lexicology a study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, The theoretical value of English lexicology forms the study of its vocabulary meets the demands of Lexicology and a would-be teacher of languages it helps to stimulate a systematic approach to the Lexicology and the general linguistic training of every philologist sums up the knowledge acquired during all The practical value of English lexicology To study words is very important. Here's the proof. The The proof 3.That the vocabulary of the average person almost stops growing by the middle twenties.4.And The results of a vocabulary test The participants 100in the upper 10 per cent lower 25 Vocabulary and success the one and only common characteristic of outstandingly successful people is an extensive What is vocabulary?One indication of intelligence Words are the tools of thinking Words are your medium The basic task of lexicology a study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its Different branches of LexicologyGeneral lexicology Specia1 lexicology Etуmо1ogу Semasiology Onоmasiоlоgу Historical lexicology Desсriptive lexicology Cоntrastive and General lexicology  is a part of general linguistics. It is concerned with the general study Specia1 lexicology  is the lexicology of a particular language (e.g., English, Russian, French, etc.). It Etуmо1ogу  is the branch of linguistics which studies the origin or derivation of words. In Semasiologyis the branch of linguistics whose subject-matter is the study of word meaning. The term “semantics” Onоmasiоlоgуis the study of the principles of the signification of things and notions by lexical and Two different approaches in linguistic science to the study of language materialthe synchronic or descriptive Desсriptive lexicology deals with the vocabulary of a given language at a given stage of its Historical lexicology  discusses the origin of various words, their change and development, the linguistic and Cоntrastive and comparative lexicology This relatively new branch of study provides a theoretical basis on which 1.4.The connection of lexicology with other branches of linguisticsis closely connected with general linguistics, the history Lexicology and phonetics words acquire a different meaning because they are pronounced differently E.g., 'import, n, lexicology and grammar Morphological indicators often help to differentiate the meanings of the words. E.g., plural lexicology and grammarSyntactic position of a word does not only change its function but its lexical lexicology and grammarThe grammatical form and function of the word affect its lexical meaning. E.g. He Lexicology and Stylistics Stylistics, although from a different angle, studies many problems treated in lexicology. These Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs Language is the reality of thought, and thought develops with the development of Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсsThe extra-linguistic factors influence usage and development of language. This influence is particularly strong The new language of cyberspace (“cybervocabulary”). As computers gradually extended their influence, so did cyber-, as Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсsPIN (1981) is an abbreviation of personal identification number, a number allocated by a Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсsE-mail (1982) is an abbreviation of electronic mail, which by the middle of the Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсsThe power of English is not confined to the invention and manufacture of new Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсsAnother example: the suffix — holic, -aholic, -oholoc (workaholic [1968]) describes Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсsChocoholic, a compulsive eater of chocolate, appeared in 1976. Shopaholic, a compulsive shopper, appeared New words comprise various structural types: simple (cable, dude, rap); derived (buyout, to upchuck, animalist, synergy, Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсsOver the years, many different meanings of cool have accumulated. Cool has meant LexicologyTo understand a word and to use it correctly, we must understand and know its semantics,

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преподавателей/Толстоухова В.Ф.Толстоухова Валентина Федоровнадоцент кафедры английского языкознанияауд. 122, тел. (17) 327 50 10LEXICOLOGY COURSE

LECTURE 1 LANGUAGE AND LEXICOLOGY www.philology.bsu.by/кафедры/кафедра английского языкознания/учебные материалы/кафедра английского языкознания/папки преподавателей/Толстоухова В.Ф.

Толстоухова Валентина Федоровна
доцент кафедры английского языкознания
ауд. 122, тел. (17) 327 50 10

LEXICOLOGY COURSE


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(УСР) 6 hoursTOTAL		34

Syllabus

Lectures 20 hours
Workshops 8 hours
Supervised self-guided work (УСР) 6 hours
TOTAL 34


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Антрушина, О.В. Афанасьева, Н.Н. Морозова.— М.: Дрофа, 2004.— 288 с.Арбекова Т. И. Лексикология английского языка

RESOURSES

Антрушина Г.Б. Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов / Г.Б. Антрушина, О.В. Афанасьева, Н.Н. Морозова.— М.: Дрофа, 2004.— 288 с.
Арбекова Т. И. Лексикология английского языка (практический курс). Учеб. пособие для II – III курсов ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. М., Высш. школа, 1977. — 240 с.
Бабич Г.Н. Lexicology A Current Guide. Лексикология английского языка: учеб. пособие / Г.Н. Бабич. — М.: Флинта: Наука, 2009. — 200 с.
Гвишиани Н.Б. Современный английский язык. Лексикология / Modern English Studies: Lexicology / Н.Б. Гвишиани М.: Академия, 2009. — 224 с.
Дубенец Э.М. Современный английский язык. Лексикология: Пособие для студентов гуманитарных вузов. — М./СПб.: ГЛОССА/КАРО, 2004. — 192 с.
Катермина В.В. Лексикология английского языка. Практикум. – / В.В. Катермина. — М.: Флинта: Наука, 2010.— 120 с.


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of lexicology1.3.The theoretical and practical value of English lexicology1.4.The connection of lexicology with other branches

LECTURE 1 The questions under consideration

1.What is lexicology?
1.1.The definition of lexicology
1.2.The object of lexicology
1.3.The theoretical and practical value of English lexicology
1.4.The connection of lexicology with other branches of linguistics


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words, their change and development, the linguistic and extra linguistic forces modifying their structure, meaning

TEST 1

Name the type of lexicology which deals with
the origin of various words, their change and development, the linguistic and extra linguistic forces modifying their structure, meaning and usage
the general study of vocabulary, irrespective of the specific features of any particular language
the comparison and description of the vocabularies of different languages;
the vocabulary of a given language at a given stage of the development;
the description of the characteristic peculiarities in the vocabulary of a given language.


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branch of linguistics?2. What is the only common characteristic of outstandingly successful people?3.What are the

2. Answer the following questions

1.What is the subject-matter of lexicology as a branch of linguistics?
2. What is the only common characteristic of outstandingly successful people?
3.What are the two approaches in linguistic science to the study of language material?
4.What types of Lexicology do you know? Comment on the difference between them.
5.What aspects of research do vocabulary studies include? What do these aspects deal with?


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can help to differentiate the meanings of the words. Can you give examples other than

6.What are the points of interactions between lexicology and phonetics?
7. Morphological indicators can help to differentiate the meanings of the words. Can you give examples other than in the lecture to illustrate the statement?
8. The lexical meaning of the word depends on the grammatical context in which it occurs. Can you give any examples?
9.Discuss the relationship between lexicology and stylistics.
10.Give your reasons why lexicology is considered to be essentially a sociolinguistic science?


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- Modern English Lexicology?It is the science of the English word;It's an important branch of

1.1. The definition of lexicology 1.2. The object of lexicology

What is it - Modern English Lexicology?
It is the science of the English word;
It's an important branch of general philology,
And it's OK to give it a good thought.
It makes you a good expert in morphology
Because it treats the structure of the word.
In speech, it opens for you the words' "psychology"
And shows that they are in full concord.
In short, it turns you into a linguistic prodigy
For you just grasp the nature of the WORD!


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vocabulary of the language and the properties of words as the main units of language.(Arnold

The definition of lexicology

Lexicology is the part of linguistics dealing with the vocabulary of the language and the properties of words as the main units of language.(Arnold I.V.)

Lexicology, a branch of linguistics, is the study of words. (Г.Б. Антрушина)


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The term lexicology

lexicology

lexis ‘word’



logos ‘learning’.


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respect to its origin, development and current use.

The object of lexicology

a study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and current use.


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meets the demands of many different branches of applied linguistics, namely of lexicography, standardization of

The theoretical value of English lexicology

forms the study of its vocabulary
meets the demands of many different branches of applied linguistics, namely of lexicography, standardization of terminology, information retrieval, literary criticism and especially of foreign language teaching
is important in training a would-be teacher of languages


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systematic approach to the facts of vocabulary and an organised comparison of the foreign and

Lexicology and a would-be teacher of languages

it helps to stimulate a systematic approach to the facts of vocabulary and an organised comparison of the foreign and native language
it helps to build up the learner’s vocabulary by an effective selection, grouping and analysis of new words


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knowledge acquired during all his years at the foreign language faculty imparts the necessary skills

Lexicology and the general linguistic training of every philologist

sums up the knowledge acquired during all his years at the foreign language faculty
imparts the necessary skills of using different kinds of dictionaries and reference books
prepares for future independent work on increasing and improving one’s vocabulary


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Here's the proof. The results of the experiments.1.That if your vocabulary is limited your chances

The practical value of English lexicology

To study words is very important. Here's the proof. The results of the experiments.
1.That if your vocabulary is limited your chances of success are limited.
2.That one of the easiest and quickest ways to get ahead is by consciously building up your knowledge of words.



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by the middle twenties.4.And that from then on it is necessary to have an intelligent

The proof

3.That the vocabulary of the average person almost stops growing by the middle twenties.
4.And that from then on it is necessary to have an intelligent plan if progress is to be made.
5.A high executive’s skill in words was a tremendous help in getting him his job


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per cent lower 25 per cent had executive positions not a single young man had

The results of a vocabulary test

The participants 100

in the upper 10 per cent
lower 25 per cent



had executive positions
not a single young man had become an executive


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people is an extensive knowledge of the exact meaning of English words

Vocabulary and success

the one and only common characteristic of outstandingly successful people is an extensive knowledge of the exact meaning of English words


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Words are your medium of exchange Words are explosive Words can also change the direction

What is vocabulary?

One indication of intelligence
Words are the tools of thinking
Words are your medium of exchange
Words are explosive
Words can also change the direction of your life
Words can make you great!


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in respect to its origin, development and current use. Lexicology is concerned with words, word-groups,

The basic task of lexicology

a study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and current use.
Lexicology is concerned with words, word-groups, phraseological units, and with morphemes that make up words.


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Desсriptive lexicology Cоntrastive and Comparative lexicology

Different branches of Lexicology

General lexicology
Specia1 lexicology
Etуmо1ogу
Semasiology
Onоmasiоlоgу
Historical lexicology
Desсriptive lexicology
Cоntrastive and Comparative lexicology


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with the general study of vocabulary, irrespective of the specific features of any particular language.

General lexicology

is a part of general linguistics.
It is concerned with the general study of vocabulary, irrespective of the specific features of any particular language.


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Russian, French, etc.). It devotes its attention to the description of the characteristic peculiarities in

Specia1 lexicology

is the lexicology of a particular language (e.g., English, Russian, French, etc.).
It devotes its attention to the description of the characteristic peculiarities in the vocabulary of a given language.


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derivation of words. In many cases the etymology of a word reveals itself in comparative

Etуmо1ogу

is the branch of linguistics which studies the origin or derivation of words. In many cases the etymology of a word reveals itself in comparative historical studies.


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meaning. The term “semantics” is used to denote the lexical meaning of words or phrases.

Semasiology

is the branch of linguistics whose subject-matter is the study of word meaning.
The term “semantics” is used to denote the lexical meaning of words or phrases.


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notions by lexical and lexico-phraseological means of a given language. It is especially important in

Onоmasiоlоgу

is the study of the principles of the signification of things and notions by lexical and lexico-phraseological means of a given language. It is especially important in studying dialects where one and the same object finds its different signification in different regions of the country.


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materialthe synchronic or descriptive (Descriptive lexicology)the diachronic or historical (Historical lexicology)

Two different approaches in linguistic science to the study of language material



the synchronic or descriptive (Descriptive lexicology)


the diachronic or historical (Historical lexicology)


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given stage of its development. It studies the functions of words and their specific structure.

Desсriptive lexicology

deals with the vocabulary of a given language at a given stage of its development. It studies the functions of words and their specific structure.


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development, the linguistic and extra linguistic forces modifying their structure, meaning and usage.

Historical lexicology

discusses the origin of various words, their change and development, the linguistic and extra linguistic forces modifying their structure, meaning and usage.


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theoretical basis on which the vocabularies of different languages can be compared and described. Of

Cоntrastive and comparative lexicology

This relatively new branch of study provides a theoretical basis on which the vocabularies of different languages can be compared and described. Of primary importance in this respect is the comparison of the foreign language with the mother tongue.


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general linguistics, the history of the language, phonetics, stylistics, grammar sociolinguistics, paralinguistics, pragmalinguistics

1.4.The connection of lexicology with other branches of linguistics


is closely connected with

general linguistics,
the history of the language,
phonetics,
stylistics,
grammar
sociolinguistics,
paralinguistics,
pragmalinguistics


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differently E.g., 'import, n, im'port, v. Stress also distinguishes compounds from homonymous word-groups blackbird:

Lexicology and phonetics

words acquire a different meaning because they are pronounced differently E.g., 'import, n, im'port, v.
Stress also distinguishes compounds from homonymous word-groups blackbird: 'black 'bird.


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the words. E.g., plural forms can serve to form special lexical meanings: advice (counsel), advices

lexicology and grammar

Morphological indicators often help to differentiate the meanings of the words. E.g., plural forms can serve to form special lexical meanings: advice (counsel), advices (information), damage (injury), damages (compensation).
prefix "re" - can make verbs with the aspective sence of repetition: remake, reorganize.


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function but its lexical meaning as well. e.g., library school (A library school is an

lexicology and grammar

Syntactic position of a word does not only change its function but its lexical meaning as well.
e.g., library school (A library school is an institution of higher learning (A library school is an institution of higher learning specializing in the professional training of librarians)- school library.


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lexical meaning. E.g. He is going to write a new book - the verb expresses

lexicology and grammar

The grammatical form and function of the word affect its lexical meaning. E.g. He is going to write a new book - the verb expresses an action in the nearest future; The house is gone -the verb denotes absence.


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treated in lexicology. These are the problems of meaning, connotations, synonymy, functional differentiation of vocabulary

Lexicology and Stylistics

Stylistics, although from a different angle, studies many problems treated in lexicology. These are the problems of meaning, connotations, synonymy, functional differentiation of vocabulary according to the sphere of communication and others. The expressive elements of a language cannot be studied outside of their relations to other styles, which are emotionally neutral.


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with the development of society. Every new phenomenon in human society finds a reflection in

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

Language is the reality of thought, and thought develops with the development of society. Every new phenomenon in human society finds a reflection in vocabulary, e.g., computor, cyclotron, psycholinguistics.


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influence is particularly strong in lexis.

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

The extra-linguistic factors influence usage and development of language. This influence is particularly strong in lexis.


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so did cyber-, as a prefix having to do with computers and electronic communication. Cybernetics

The new language of cyberspace (“cybervocabulary”).

As computers gradually extended their influence, so did cyber-, as a prefix having to do with computers and electronic communication. Cybernetics (1948)
cyberphobia, cyberpunk, cyberspace, cyberart, cyberhippy, cyberlawyer, cyberworld, cybermat, cybercop, cybercha, cyber-community, cybernaut, cybrarian — the new language of cyberspace


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number allocated by a bank, etc., to a customer for use with a cash card.

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

PIN (1981) is an abbreviation of personal identification number, a number allocated by a bank, etc., to a customer for use with a cash card. (1981 Sunday Times: Cards with PINs written on them have been stolen.)


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the middle of the 1980s has established itself as the standard term; hacker (1983), Internet

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

E-mail (1982) is an abbreviation of electronic mail, which by the middle of the 1980s has established itself as the standard term;
hacker (1983), Internet (1986), cellphone (1984), mobile (1990), spam (1994), web (1994).


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and manufacture of new technology. Dis-, diss- (1986) is to put someone down, to show

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

The power of English is not confined to the invention and manufacture of new technology. Dis-, diss- (1986) is to put someone down, to show disrespect for a person by insulting language or behaviour. "Are you dissing me?" = Are you showing disrespect for me? Dis- is a permanent feature of political discussion that includes disagreement, disputes, disappointments, disillusion, distress, dissidents, and disorder.


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describes

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

Another example: the suffix — holic, -aholic, -oholoc (workaholic [1968]) describes "all-consuming obsessions", not all of them serious. The suffix could be addicted to play, foods, shopping, news, credit, and junk: golfaholic, footballaholic, computerholic, leisureholic, etc.


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a compulsive shopper, appeared in 1984.

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

Chocoholic, a compulsive eater of chocolate, appeared in 1976.
Shopaholic, a compulsive shopper, appeared in 1984.


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to upchuck, animalist, synergy, whicked);compound (awesome, blockbuster, ecofriendly, high-maintenance, job-hunt, script-show); shortenings (dis, to veg,

New words comprise various structural types:

simple (cable, dude, rap);
derived (buyout, to upchuck, animalist, synergy, whicked);
compound (awesome, blockbuster, ecofriendly, high-maintenance, job-hunt, script-show);
shortenings (dis, to veg, ATM, WWW — 1994, the World Wide Wait, a nickname for the WWW as delays can be frequent depending on the speed of your Internet connection).


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Cool has meant

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

Over the years, many different meanings of cool have accumulated. Cool has meant "daring" (1839), "clever" (1924), "exciting" (1933), "stylish" (1946), "cautious" or "under control" (1952), and "satisfactory" or "OK" (1952). To cool it has meant "to stop" (1952), "to die"(1960), and "to relax" (1986). In the 1990s, among young people, cool in the sense "approval" or "appreciation" has even taken on a distinctive pronunciation closer to that of cull.


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and know its semantics, its pragmatic aspect, and its cultural aspect. All this makes lexicology

Lexicology

To understand a word and to use it correctly, we must understand and know its semantics, its pragmatic aspect, and its cultural aspect. All this makes lexicology a branch of linguistics with its own aims and methods of research; its basic goal being a study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and use.


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