Language and lexicology. (Lecture 1) презентация

Содержание

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Syllabus Lectures 20 hours Workshops 8 hours Supervised self-guided work (УСР) 6 hours TOTAL 34

Syllabus

Lectures 20 hours
Workshops 8 hours
Supervised self-guided work (УСР) 6 hours
TOTAL 34

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RESOURSES Антрушина Г.Б. Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов

RESOURSES

Антрушина Г.Б. Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов / Г.Б.

Антрушина, О.В. Афанасьева, Н.Н. Морозова.— М.: Дрофа, 2004.— 288 с.
Арбекова Т. И. Лексикология английского языка (практический курс). Учеб. пособие для II – III курсов ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. М., Высш. школа, 1977. — 240 с.
Бабич Г.Н. Lexicology A Current Guide. Лексикология английского языка: учеб. пособие / Г.Н. Бабич. — М.: Флинта: Наука, 2009. — 200 с.
Гвишиани Н.Б. Современный английский язык. Лексикология / Modern English Studies: Lexicology / Н.Б. Гвишиани М.: Академия, 2009. — 224 с.
Дубенец Э.М. Современный английский язык. Лексикология: Пособие для студентов гуманитарных вузов. — М./СПб.: ГЛОССА/КАРО, 2004. — 192 с.
Катермина В.В. Лексикология английского языка. Практикум. – / В.В. Катермина. — М.: Флинта: Наука, 2010.— 120 с.
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LECTURE 1 The questions under consideration 1.What is lexicology? 1.1.The

LECTURE 1 The questions under consideration

1.What is lexicology?
1.1.The definition of lexicology
1.2.The object

of lexicology
1.3.The theoretical and practical value of English lexicology
1.4.The connection of lexicology with other branches of linguistics
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TEST 1 Name the type of lexicology which deals with

TEST 1

Name the type of lexicology which deals with
the origin of

various words, their change and development, the linguistic and extra linguistic forces modifying their structure, meaning and usage
the general study of vocabulary, irrespective of the specific features of any particular language
the comparison and description of the vocabularies of different languages;
the vocabulary of a given language at a given stage of the development;
the description of the characteristic peculiarities in the vocabulary of a given language.
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2. Answer the following questions 1.What is the subject-matter of

2. Answer the following questions

1.What is the subject-matter of lexicology as

a branch of linguistics?
2. What is the only common characteristic of outstandingly successful people?
3.What are the two approaches in linguistic science to the study of language material?
4.What types of Lexicology do you know? Comment on the difference between them.
5.What aspects of research do vocabulary studies include? What do these aspects deal with?
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6.What are the points of interactions between lexicology and phonetics?

6.What are the points of interactions between lexicology and phonetics?
7. Morphological

indicators can help to differentiate the meanings of the words. Can you give examples other than in the lecture to illustrate the statement?
8. The lexical meaning of the word depends on the grammatical context in which it occurs. Can you give any examples?
9.Discuss the relationship between lexicology and stylistics.
10.Give your reasons why lexicology is considered to be essentially a sociolinguistic science?
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1.1. The definition of lexicology 1.2. The object of lexicology

1.1. The definition of lexicology 1.2. The object of lexicology

What is it

- Modern English Lexicology?
It is the science of the English word;
It's an important branch of general philology,
And it's OK to give it a good thought.
It makes you a good expert in morphology
Because it treats the structure of the word.
In speech, it opens for you the words' "psychology"
And shows that they are in full concord.
In short, it turns you into a linguistic prodigy
For you just grasp the nature of the WORD!
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The definition of lexicology Lexicology is the part of linguistics

The definition of lexicology

Lexicology is the part of linguistics dealing with

the vocabulary of the language and the properties of words as the main units of language.(Arnold I.V.)
Lexicology, a branch of linguistics, is the study of words. (Г.Б. Антрушина)
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The term lexicology lexicology lexis ‘word’ logos ‘learning’.

The term lexicology

lexicology

lexis ‘word’
logos ‘learning’.

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The object of lexicology a study and systematic description of

The object of lexicology

a study and systematic description of vocabulary

in respect to its origin, development and current use.
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The theoretical value of English lexicology forms the study of

The theoretical value of English lexicology

forms the study of its

vocabulary
meets the demands of many different branches of applied linguistics, namely of lexicography, standardization of terminology, information retrieval, literary criticism and especially of foreign language teaching
is important in training a would-be teacher of languages
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Lexicology and a would-be teacher of languages it helps to

Lexicology and a would-be teacher of languages

it helps to stimulate

a systematic approach to the facts of vocabulary and an organised comparison of the foreign and native language
it helps to build up the learner’s vocabulary by an effective selection, grouping and analysis of new words
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Lexicology and the general linguistic training of every philologist sums

Lexicology and the general linguistic training of every philologist

sums up

the knowledge acquired during all his years at the foreign language faculty
imparts the necessary skills of using different kinds of dictionaries and reference books
prepares for future independent work on increasing and improving one’s vocabulary
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The practical value of English lexicology To study words is

The practical value of English lexicology

To study words is very

important. Here's the proof. The results of the experiments.
1.That if your vocabulary is limited your chances of success are limited.
2.That one of the easiest and quickest ways to get ahead is by consciously building up your knowledge of words.
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The proof 3.That the vocabulary of the average person almost

The proof

3.That the vocabulary of the average person almost stops

growing by the middle twenties.
4.And that from then on it is necessary to have an intelligent plan if progress is to be made.
5.A high executive’s skill in words was a tremendous help in getting him his job
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The results of a vocabulary test The participants 100 in

The results of a vocabulary test

The participants 100
in the upper

10 per cent
lower 25 per cent
had executive positions
not a single young man had become an executive
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Vocabulary and success the one and only common characteristic of

Vocabulary and success

the one and only common characteristic of outstandingly

successful people is an extensive knowledge of the exact meaning of English words
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What is vocabulary? One indication of intelligence Words are the

What is vocabulary?

One indication of intelligence
Words are the tools of

thinking
Words are your medium of exchange
Words are explosive
Words can also change the direction of your life
Words can make you great!
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The basic task of lexicology a study and systematic description

The basic task of lexicology

a study and systematic description of

vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and current use.
Lexicology is concerned with words, word-groups, phraseological units, and with morphemes that make up words.
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Different branches of Lexicology General lexicology Specia1 lexicology Etуmо1ogу Semasiology

Different branches of Lexicology

General lexicology
Specia1 lexicology
Etуmо1ogу
Semasiology
Onоmasiоlоgу
Historical

lexicology
Desсriptive lexicology
Cоntrastive and Comparative lexicology
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General lexicology is a part of general linguistics. It is

General lexicology

is a part of general linguistics.
It is concerned

with the general study of vocabulary, irrespective of the specific features of any particular language.
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Specia1 lexicology is the lexicology of a particular language (e.g.,

Specia1 lexicology

is the lexicology of a particular language (e.g., English,

Russian, French, etc.).
It devotes its attention to the description of the characteristic peculiarities in the vocabulary of a given language.
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Etуmо1ogу is the branch of linguistics which studies the origin

Etуmо1ogу

is the branch of linguistics which studies the origin or

derivation of words. In many cases the etymology of a word reveals itself in comparative historical studies.
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Semasiology is the branch of linguistics whose subject-matter is the

Semasiology

is the branch of linguistics whose subject-matter is the study of

word meaning.
The term “semantics” is used to denote the lexical meaning of words or phrases.
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Onоmasiоlоgу is the study of the principles of the signification

Onоmasiоlоgу

is the study of the principles of the signification of things

and notions by lexical and lexico-phraseological means of a given language. It is especially important in studying dialects where one and the same object finds its different signification in different regions of the country.
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Two different approaches in linguistic science to the study of

Two different approaches in linguistic science to the study of language

material
the synchronic or descriptive (Descriptive lexicology)
the diachronic or historical (Historical lexicology)
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Desсriptive lexicology deals with the vocabulary of a given language

Desсriptive lexicology

deals with the vocabulary of a given language at

a given stage of its development. It studies the functions of words and their specific structure.
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Historical lexicology discusses the origin of various words, their change

Historical lexicology

discusses the origin of various words, their change and

development, the linguistic and extra linguistic forces modifying their structure, meaning and usage.
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Cоntrastive and comparative lexicology This relatively new branch of study

Cоntrastive and comparative lexicology

This relatively new branch of study provides

a theoretical basis on which the vocabularies of different languages can be compared and described. Of primary importance in this respect is the comparison of the foreign language with the mother tongue.
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1.4.The connection of lexicology with other branches of linguistics is

1.4.The connection of lexicology with other branches of linguistics
is closely connected

with

general linguistics,
the history of the language,
phonetics,
stylistics,
grammar
sociolinguistics,
paralinguistics,
pragmalinguistics

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Lexicology and phonetics words acquire a different meaning because they

Lexicology and phonetics

words acquire a different meaning because they are

pronounced differently E.g., 'import, n, im'port, v.
Stress also distinguishes compounds from homonymous word-groups blackbird: 'black 'bird.
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lexicology and grammar Morphological indicators often help to differentiate the

lexicology and grammar

Morphological indicators often help to differentiate the meanings

of the words. E.g., plural forms can serve to form special lexical meanings: advice (counsel), advices (information), damage (injury), damages (compensation).
prefix "re" - can make verbs with the aspective sence of repetition: remake, reorganize.
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lexicology and grammar Syntactic position of a word does not

lexicology and grammar

Syntactic position of a word does not only change

its function but its lexical meaning as well.
e.g., library school (A library school is an institution of higher learning (A library school is an institution of higher learning specializing in the professional training of librarians)- school library.
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lexicology and grammar The grammatical form and function of the

lexicology and grammar

The grammatical form and function of the word affect

its lexical meaning. E.g. He is going to write a new book - the verb expresses an action in the nearest future; The house is gone -the verb denotes absence.
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Lexicology and Stylistics Stylistics, although from a different angle, studies

Lexicology and Stylistics

Stylistics, although from a different angle, studies many

problems treated in lexicology. These are the problems of meaning, connotations, synonymy, functional differentiation of vocabulary according to the sphere of communication and others. The expressive elements of a language cannot be studied outside of their relations to other styles, which are emotionally neutral.
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Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs Language is the reality of thought, and

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

Language is the reality of thought, and thought

develops with the development of society. Every new phenomenon in human society finds a reflection in vocabulary, e.g., computor, cyclotron, psycholinguistics.
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Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs The extra-linguistic factors influence usage and development

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

The extra-linguistic factors influence usage and development of language.

This influence is particularly strong in lexis.
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The new language of cyberspace (“cybervocabulary”). As computers gradually extended

The new language of cyberspace (“cybervocabulary”).

As computers gradually extended their

influence, so did cyber-, as a prefix having to do with computers and electronic communication. Cybernetics (1948)
cyberphobia, cyberpunk, cyberspace, cyberart, cyberhippy, cyberlawyer, cyberworld, cybermat, cybercop, cybercha, cyber-community, cybernaut, cybrarian — the new language of cyberspace
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Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs PIN (1981) is an abbreviation of personal

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

PIN (1981) is an abbreviation of personal identification number,

a number allocated by a bank, etc., to a customer for use with a cash card. (1981 Sunday Times: Cards with PINs written on them have been stolen.)
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Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs E-mail (1982) is an abbreviation of electronic

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

E-mail (1982) is an abbreviation of electronic mail, which

by the middle of the 1980s has established itself as the standard term;
hacker (1983), Internet (1986), cellphone (1984), mobile (1990), spam (1994), web (1994).
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Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs The power of English is not confined

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

The power of English is not confined to the

invention and manufacture of new technology. Dis-, diss- (1986) is to put someone down, to show disrespect for a person by insulting language or behaviour. "Are you dissing me?" = Are you showing disrespect for me? Dis- is a permanent feature of political discussion that includes disagreement, disputes, disappointments, disillusion, distress, dissidents, and disorder.
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Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs Another example: the suffix — holic, -aholic,

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

Another example: the suffix — holic, -aholic, -oholoc (workaholic

[1968]) describes "all-consuming obsessions", not all of them serious. The suffix could be addicted to play, foods, shopping, news, credit, and junk: golfaholic, footballaholic, computerholic, leisureholic, etc.
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Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs Chocoholic, a compulsive eater of chocolate, appeared

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

Chocoholic, a compulsive eater of chocolate, appeared in 1976.


Shopaholic, a compulsive shopper, appeared in 1984.
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New words comprise various structural types: simple (cable, dude, rap);

New words comprise various structural types:

simple (cable, dude, rap);
derived

(buyout, to upchuck, animalist, synergy, whicked);
compound (awesome, blockbuster, ecofriendly, high-maintenance, job-hunt, script-show);
shortenings (dis, to veg, ATM, WWW — 1994, the World Wide Wait, a nickname for the WWW as delays can be frequent depending on the speed of your Internet connection).
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Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs Over the years, many different meanings of

Lexicology and Sосiо1inguistiсs

Over the years, many different meanings of cool have

accumulated. Cool has meant "daring" (1839), "clever" (1924), "exciting" (1933), "stylish" (1946), "cautious" or "under control" (1952), and "satisfactory" or "OK" (1952). To cool it has meant "to stop" (1952), "to die"(1960), and "to relax" (1986). In the 1990s, among young people, cool in the sense "approval" or "appreciation" has even taken on a distinctive pronunciation closer to that of cull.
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