Презентация на тему Biological method of research

What are biological techniques? Biological techniques are methods or procedures that are used to study living things. They include experimental and computational methods, approaches, protocols and told for biological researches.
Biological method of research 
 PCR and DNA diagnostic BY :- SAKHI INGOLE . What are biological techniques?  Biological techniques are methods or procedures that are used to Research methods in biological sciences are as numerous and varied as the diversity of PCR technique.  PCR is a technique that takes specific sequence of DNA of small Principles of PCR 1) purpose  2) condition  3) components. Purpose To amplify a lot of double stranded DNA molecules( fragments) with same (identical) size Condition 1) denaturation of ds DNA technique.   2) Annealing of primers. 1) Denaturation If we heat up a tube of DNA dissolved in water, the energy 2) Annealing  Annealing is the process of heating and cooling two single-stranded oligonucleotides with 3) extension When the temperature is raised and the strand of DNA is made by Basic requirements for PCR technique.  1) DNA sequence of target region must be known. Three aspects of PCR Specificity  Efficiency  Fidelity. Things to try if PCR does not work 1) if no product (of correct) size DNA diagnostic Diagnosis of disease due to pathogens or due to inherent genetic defects if Traditional diagnostic methods for parasite infection include microscopic examination, in vitro culture, and detection DNA being genetic material of living organism, contain the information which contributes to various Methods of DNA assay  1) Nucleic acid hybridization : Questions Aswin – what are biological techniques? Harishankar – what is extension? Keerthana – methods in nucleic acid hybridization. Thanks for watching!!

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Слайд 1 Biological method of research PCR and DNA diagnostic
BY :- SAKHI INGOLE

Biological method of research 
 PCR and DNA diagnosticBY :- SAKHI INGOLE .  KARMSHIL KUMAR
.
KARMSHIL KUMAR

Слайд 2 What are biological techniques?
Biological techniques are methods or procedures that

What are biological techniques? Biological techniques are methods or procedures that are used to study
are used to study living things. They include experimental and computational methods, approaches, protocols and told for biological researches.

Слайд 3
Research methods in biological sciences are as numerous and varied as

Research methods in biological sciences are as numerous and varied as the diversity of questions
the diversity of questions asked and the phenomenon studied.
They include the following:-
1) experimental research.
2) observational research.
3) survey, questionnaire, and interviews.
4) biographical and archival research.
5) biological educational research.

Слайд 4 PCR technique.
PCR is a technique that takes specific sequence of

PCR technique. PCR is a technique that takes specific sequence of DNA of small amount
DNA of small amount and amplifies it to be used for future testing.
It is an in vitro technique.

Слайд 5 Principles of PCR
1) purpose

2) condition

3) components.

Principles of PCR1) purpose2) condition3) components.

Слайд 6 Purpose
To amplify a lot of double stranded DNA molecules( fragments) with

PurposeTo amplify a lot of double stranded DNA molecules( fragments) with same (identical) size and
same (identical) size and sequence by enzymatic method and cycling condition.

Слайд 7 Condition
1) denaturation of ds DNA technique.

2) Annealing of primers.

3)

Condition1) denaturation of ds DNA technique. 2) Annealing of primers. 3) extension of ds DNA.
extension of ds DNA.

Слайд 8 1) Denaturation
If we heat up a tube of DNA dissolved in

1) DenaturationIf we heat up a tube of DNA dissolved in water, the energy of
water, the energy of the heat can pull the tube strands of DNA apart.
This process is called denaturation.

Слайд 9 2) Annealing
Annealing is the process of heating and cooling two

2) Annealing Annealing is the process of heating and cooling two single-stranded oligonucleotides with complimentary
single-stranded oligonucleotides with complimentary sequence.
Heat breaks all hydrogen bonds, and cooling allows new bonds, to form between sequences.

Слайд 10 3) extension
When the temperature is raised and the strand of DNA

3) extensionWhen the temperature is raised and the strand of DNA is made by the
is made by the Taq polymerase enzyme.

Слайд 11 Basic requirements for PCR technique.
1) DNA sequence of target region

Basic requirements for PCR technique. 1) DNA sequence of target region must be known. 2)
must be known.
2) primers : typically 20-30 bases in size. These can be readily produced by commercial companies. Can also be prepared using a DNA synthesizer.
3) thermo-stable DNA polymerase – e.g Taq polymerase which is not inactivated by heating to 95C.
4) DNA thermal cycler : it is a machine which can be programmed to carry out heating and cooling of sample over a number of cycles.

Слайд 12 Three aspects of PCR
Specificity

Efficiency

Fidelity.

Three aspects of PCRSpecificityEfficiencyFidelity.

Слайд 13 Things to try if PCR does not work
1) if no product

Things to try if PCR does not work1) if no product (of correct) size produced:
(of correct) size produced:
- check the DNA quality.
- reduce the annealing temperature.
- increase magnesium concentration.
- add dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) to assay (at around 10%)
- use different thermo-stable enzymes.
- throw out primers – make new stocks.
2) If extra spurious product bands present:
- increase annealing temperature.
- reduce magnesium concentration.
- try different enzymes.
- reduce number of cycles.

Слайд 14 DNA diagnostic
Diagnosis of disease due to pathogens or due to inherent

DNA diagnosticDiagnosis of disease due to pathogens or due to inherent genetic defects if necessary
genetic defects if necessary for appropriate treatment.

Слайд 15
Traditional diagnostic methods for parasite infection include microscopic examination, in vitro

Traditional diagnostic methods for parasite infection include microscopic examination, in vitro culture, and detection of
culture, and detection of ab in serum.
And for genetic diseases, the procedure such as estimation of metabolites (blood and urine) and enzymes assay are used.
These laboratory technique are indirect, not always specific.

Слайд 16
DNA being genetic material of living organism, contain the information which

DNA being genetic material of living organism, contain the information which contributes to various characteristics
contributes to various characteristics features of specific organism.
Thus the presence of disease causing pathogens can be detected by identifying a gene or a set of genes of the organism.
Inherited genetics defect can be diagnosed by identifying the alteration in Gene.

Слайд 17 Methods of DNA assay
1) Nucleic acid hybridization :

Methods of DNA assay 1) Nucleic acid hybridization :   - radioactive detection system.
- radioactive detection system.
- non-radioactive detection system.
DNA probe :
- PCR in use of DNA probe.
-DNA probes and signal amplification.
DNA chip:
- micro-array of Gene probe.

Слайд 18 Questions
Aswin – what are biological techniques?

QuestionsAswin – what are biological techniques?      What are some research
What are some research methods in biological sciences?
Nidhi – what to do when extra spurious bands are present in PCR?
What are some methods of DNA assay?
Ekta – what are principles of PCR?
Explain: purpose (principle of PCR).
Aishwary – what is PCR technique?
What is annealing process?
Vikram – explain: condition (principle of PCR).
What is denaturation?


Слайд 19
Harishankar – what is extension?

Harishankar – what is extension?        What are aspects
What are aspects of PCR?
Gracy - What are some basic requirements for PCR technique?
What to do if no product of correct size is formed during PCR?
Amit – what does traditional method of parasite diagnosis include?
What is DNA diagnostic?
Teena – how does heating and cooling affects the hydrogen bonds of DNA?
How is the presence of disease causing pathogens detected?

Слайд 20
Keerthana – methods in nucleic acid hybridization.

Keerthana – methods in nucleic acid hybridization.        How
How are genetic disease diagnosed?
Haris – how are inherited Gene defects identified?
Explain: primers as a requirement for PCR technique.

Слайд 21
Thanks for watching!!

Thanks for watching!!

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